Zones and Head quarters of Indian Railways

anandsingh's version from 2018-12-13 06:26

Zones and Head quarters of Indian Railways


Question Answer
Name Established Headquarters Divisions
Southern 14 April 1951 Chennai Chennai, Tiruchirappalli, Madurai, and Salem, Palakkad, Thiruvananthapuram
Central 5 November 1951 Mumbai Mumbai,CST, Bhusawal, Pune, Solapur and Nagpur
Western 5 November 1951 Mumbai Mumbai,Central, Ratlam, Ahmedabad, Rajkot,
Bhavnagar and Vadodara
Eastern 14 April 1952 Kolkata Howrah, Sealdah, Asansol and Malda Town
Northern 14 April 1952 Delhi Delhi, Ambala, Firozpur, Lucknow and Moradabad
North Eastern 14 April 1952 Gorakhpur Izzatnagar, Lucknow and Varanasi
South Eastern 1955 Kolkata Adra, Chakradharpur, Kharagpur and Ranchi
Northeast Frontier 15 January 1958 Maligaon Alipurduar, Katihar, Rangia, Lumding and Tinsukia
South Central 2 October 1966 Secunderabad Vijayawada, Secunderabad, Guntakal, Guntur,
Hyderabad and Nanded
East Central 1 October 2002 Hajipur Danapur, Dhanbad, Mughalsarai, Samastipur and Sonpur
North Western 1 October 2002 Jaipur Jaipur, Ajmer, Bikaner and Jodhpur
East Coast 1 April 2003 Bhubaneswar Khurda Road, Sambalpur and Visakhapatnam
North Central 1 April 2003 Allahabad Allahabad, Agra and Jhansi
South East Central 1 April 2003 Bilaspur Bilaspur, Raipur and Nagpur
South Western 1 April 2003 Hubli Hubli, Bangalore, Mysore and Gulbarga
West Central 1 April 2003 Jabalpur Jabalpur, Bhopal and Kota
Metro Railway Kolkata


Important Railway Committees


Shahnawaz Committee – 1954, High Level Safety Review Committee
Kanjaru Committee – 1962, Railway Accidents Committee
Wahchoo Committee – 1968, Railway Safety Committee
Seekari Committee – 1978, Railway Accidents Enquiry Committee
Khanna Committee – 1998, Railway Safety Review Committee
Arvind Panagariya committee – 2016 to fast-track bullet train project


Luxury Train routes


Name Run by
Palace on Wheels Rajasthan Tourism
Deccan Odyssey Maharashtra Tourism
The Golden Chariot Karnataka Tourism
Royal Rajasthan on Wheels Rajasthan Tourism


Birth of Jesus Christ 4 B.C.
Death of Jesus Christ 29 A.D.
Birth of Prophet Mohammed 570
Emigration of Mohammed to Madina, Beginning of Hijri era 622
Death of Prophet Mohammed 632
Magna Carta, first document limiting the powers of King of England was signed 1215
Black Death, most devastating pandemic in Europe killed over 100 million people 1348-50
100 years war between England and France 1337-1453
Christopher Columbus discovers the New World 1492
Vasco da Gama discovers the sea route from Europe to India 1497-98
Defeat of Spanish Armada also known as Invincible Fleet by England 1588
Great Plague of London which killed about 1 million people in the city 1665-66
Great fire of London which destroyed about 70000 homes in the city 1666 (2 - 5 Sep)
7 years war involving the great powers of the time 1757-1763
Declaration of independence of United States of America 1776
Beginning of the French Revolution 1789
Battle of Waterloo in which Napolean was defeated 1815
The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels published 1848
On the Origin of Species by Charles Darwin published 1859
Slavery is abolished by the 13th Amendment in the United States of America 1865
First modern Olympic Games held at Athens 1896
Robert Peary reached the North Pole 1909
Roald Amundsen reached the South Pole 1911
Republic of China is established, Titanic sinks 1912
1st World War 1914-1918
Russian Revolution ending the Tsarist autocracy 1917
USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) came into existence 1922
Beginning of the Great Depression 1929
2nd World War 1939-1945
Dropping of Atom Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1945
Launch of Sputnik 1, marking the beginning of space age 1957
Landing of Apollo 11 with Neil Armstrong on the surface of moon 1969
Chernobyl disaster 1986
World Wide Web invented, Reunification of Germany 1990
Dissolution of USSR 1991
End of apartheid in South Africa 1994
9/11 attack on World Trade Center 2001
Tsunami in Indian Ocean 2004
Question Answer
Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster 2011


A variant of an element with different number of neutrons is known as its Isotope
Different physical form of an element is known as its (e.g. graphite and diamond) Allotrope
Element most abundant in the Universe Hydrogen
Element most abundant in the human body Oxygen
Element which forms more than 10 million compounds Carbon
Element with the lowest melting and boiling point Helium
Element with the highest melting point Carbon
Element with the highest boiling point Tungsten
Element with highest density Osmium
Element with lowest density Hydrogen
Element with highest electronegativity Flourine
Element with lowest electronegativity (highest electropositivity) Francium
The first element to be produced artificially Technitium
The most corrosion resistant element (which cannot be affected by water, chemicals or acids) Iridium
The element which was discovered on the Sun before it was found on the Earth Helium
The non-metallic element which is liquid at room temperature Bromine
The metallic element which is liquid at room temperature Mercury
The most reactive element Flourine


The speed of sound is 343 m/s
The audible range of sound in human beings is 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz
The level of sound prolonged exposure beyond which may cause permanent hearing loss 85 dB
A woman’s voice is shriller than a man’s voice because of higher Pitch
The animals which produce sounds of high pitch and frequency to communicate and locate each other Dolphins and elephants
The loudness of sound is measured in Decibels
Stringed instruments have boxes attached to increase the Loudness of the sound produced
The minimum distance which is required to hear an echo 17 metres
The system of sound reflection used to find the depth of oceans SONAR (Sound navigation ranging)
The phenomenon which makes the sound of an approaching train shriller Doppler effect


Light waves do not require a medium to travel. Sound waves require a medium to travel.
The speed of light waves is 3 x 108 metres per second Sound waves travel at a speed of 332 m/sec
Light waves are electromagnetic waves. Sound waves are mechanical waves.
Variation in frequency of wave gives different colours. Variation in frequency of sound waves gives sound with different pitch.
Light waves can travel very long distances Sound waves cannot travel long distances as their energy is dissipated easily.


Washing soda Sodium carbonate Na2CO3
Baking soda Sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3
Borax Sodium tetraborate decahydrate Na2B4O7·10H2O
Brine Aqueous sodium chloride solution NaCl
Caustic soda Sodium hydroxide NaOH
Hypo Sodium thiosulfate Na2S2O3
Bleaching powder Calcium hypochlorite Ca(ClO)2
Quick Lime Calcium oxide CaO
Marble Calcium carbonate CaCO3
Plaster of paris Calcium sulfate CaSO4
Chalk Calcium carbonate CaCO3
Gypsum natural Calcium sulfate CaSO4·2H2O
Alum Aluminium potassium sulfate KAl(SO4)2.12H2O
Aqua regia Nitrohydrochloric acid HNO3 + 3 HCl
Aspirin Acetylsalicylic acid C9H8O4
Corundum (ruby, sapphire) Aluminium oxide Al2O3
Dry ice Solid Carbondioxide CO2
Epsom salts Magnesium sulfate MgSO4·7H2O
Heavy Water Deutrium oxide 2H2O or D2O
Pearl Ash Potassium carbonate K2CO3
Plumbago Graphite C
Prussic acid Hydrogen cyanide HCN
Jeweller's rouge Ferric oxide Fe2O3
Saltpeter Potassium nitrate KNO3
Table sugar Sucrose C12H22O11
Talc or talcum Magnesium silicate Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Vinegar Acetic acid CH3CO2H


Hydrochloric acid HCl Pickling of steel Gastric acid secreted by stomach mainly contains HCl.
Nitric acid HNO3 Production of fertilisers Nitric acid is produced by electric discharge in the atmosphere such as lightning. Known as Aqua Fortis in ancient times.
Sulphuric acid H2SO4 As an electrolyte in lead-acid batteries. Known as Oil of Vitriol in ancient times.
Phosphoric acid H3PO4 Used in beverages like colas to give a tangy taste. -
Hydroflouric acid HF Etching (writing or marking) of glass Stored in plastic containers.
Carbonic acid H2CO3 Making of soft drinks and other bubbly drinks CO2 in air combines with water in the ocean to form carbonic acid. Ocean acidification thus caused is of grave environmental concern.
Boric acid H3BO3 1. Antiseptic 2. Eye wash 3. Socks and shoes to prevent athlete's foot


Lactic acid Sour milk C2H4OHCOOH
Acetic acid Vinegar CH3COOH
Formic acid (Methanoic acid) Ant venom HCO2H
Citric acid Citrus fruits like lemon, lime, orange C6H8O7
Oxalic acid Rhubarb, spinach H2C2O4
Butyric acid Milk, butter CH3CH2CH2-COOH
Lauric acid Coconut oil CH3(CH2)10COOH
Malic acid Sour apples, sour grapes HO2CCH2CHOHCO2H
Tartaric acid Grapes, tamarinds, pineapples C4H6O6


Lactic acid Sour milk C2H4OHCOOH
Acetic acid Vinegar CH3COOH
Formic acid (Methanoic acid) Ant venom HCO2H
Citric acid Citrus fruits like lemon, lime, orange C6H8O7
Oxalic acid Rhubarb, spinach H2C2O4
Butyric acid Milk, butter CH3CH2CH2-COOH
Lauric acid Coconut oil CH3(CH2)10COOH
Malic acid Sour apples, sour grapes HO2CCH2CHOHCO2H
Tartaric acid Grapes, tamarinds, pineapples C4H6O6


Gas most abundant in earth's atmosphere Nitrogen (78%)
Percentage of oxygen in earth's atmosphere 21% (appx)
The lightest gas Hydrogen
The heaviest gas Radon
Tear Gas Ammonia (NH3)
Marsh gas Methane
Laughing gas Nitrous Oxide (N2O)
Natural gas Mainly methane with small quantities of ethane and propane
Gobar gas Methane, CO2 and hydrogen
Gas with foul smell Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S)
Gas mixed with oxygen and given to patients with restricted breathing Helium
A major air pollutant, the percentage presence of which is checked in vehicle pollution test Carbon monoxide
The gas which is responsible for the formation of brown air in traffic congested cities Nitrogen Dioxide
Major gaseous pollutant of areas located near thermal power station Suphur dioxide
Strong smelling substance added to LPG Ethyl Mercaptan or Ethanethiol
Gases responsible for depletion of ozone layer Chloroflouro carbons
Gas responsible for acid rain Sulphur dioxide
Gas used in gas welding and also artificial ripening of fruits Acetylene
Gas used in electric bulbs Argon
Gas used in flourescent lamps Mercury vapour
Gas used in LPG Butane, Propane and Ethane
Gas used in refrigeration Freon (Diflouro Dichloro Methane)
Gas used as an anaesthetic in dental surgery Nitrous Oxide


The metal with the highest melting point Tungsten
The metal with the highest thermal conductivity Silver
The metal with the highest electrical conductivity Silver
The metal with the highest density Osmium
The metal with the lowest density Lithium
The most malleable and ductile metal Gold
The least reactive metal Platinum
Metal most abundant in earth’s crust Aluminium
Metal which forms amalgam with other elements Mercury
Metal used in a fuse wire and also in solder Lead-tin alloy
Metal used in the filament of a bulb Tungsten
Metal which pollutes the air of cities having large number of vehicles Lead (reason for using unleaded petrol)
Metal used in the filaments of electric heaters Nichrome
Metal used as radiation shield Lead
Metal into which Uranium turns when it loses all its radioactivity Lead
Metal used for making boats because it does not corrode by seawater Titanium


Duralumin Aluminium and Copper
Brass Copper and Zinc
Bronze Copper and Tin
Invar Iron and Nickel
Stainless steel Iron, Chromium and Nickel
German Silver Copper, Nickel and Zinc
Gunmetal Copper, Tin and Zinc
Solder Lead and Tin
Electrum Gold and Silver
Constantan Copper and Nickel
Manganin Copper, Manganese and Nickel


Aluminium Bauxite
Beryllium Beryl
Chromium Chromite
Cobalt Cobaltite
Copper Bornite, Chalcocite
Gold Quartz
Iron Magnetite
Lead Galena
Manganese Pyrolusite
Mercury Cinnabar
Nickel Pentlandite
Tin Casseterite
Tungsten Wolframite, Scheelite
Silver Argentite
Uranium Uraninite
Zinc Sphalerite


Electric Resistance Ohm
Electric Capacitance Farad
Electric Conductance Siemens
Inductance Henry
Magnetic Flux Weber
Magnetic Flux Density Tesla
Radioactivity Becquerel
Instrument Use
Bolometer Instrument for measuring radiation by means of the rise in temperature.
Hydrometer Instrument for measuring the density of liquids.
Hygrometer Instrument for measuring the humidity of the air or a gas
Lactometer Instrument for measuring the amount of water in milk
Anemometer Instrument for measuring wind force.
Salinometer Instrument for measuring the salinity of a solution
Altimeter Instrument for measuring the altitude of an aircraft etc.
Galvanometer Instrument for detecting and measuring electric currents
Telescope Optical instrument using lenses or mirrors to magnify distant objects.
Microscope Instrument with lenses for magnifying objects or details invisible to the naked eye.
Stethoscope Instrument used in listening to the heart, lungs, etc. Greek stethos breast
Kaleidoscope Tube containing mirrors and pieces of coloured glass etc. producing changing reflected patterns when shaken.
Endoscope Instrument used to examine the interior of a hollow organ or cavity of the body
Oscilloscope Device for viewing oscillations by a display on the screen of a cathode-ray tube.
Periscope Apparatus with a tube and mirrors, by which an observer in a trench, submerged submarine, or at the back of a crowd etc., can see things otherwise out of sight
Crescograph Instrument for measuring growth in plants
Seismograph Instrument that records the force, direction, etc., of earthquakes.
Cardiograph Instrument recording heart movements.
Heliograph Signalling apparatus reflecting sunlight in flashes.
Radiograph Instrument recording the intensity of radiation


Images formed by Convex Lens
Position of object Position of image Nature of image
At infinity At focus Real, diminished, inverted
At 2F At 2F Real, diminished and inverted
Between 2F and F Beyond 2F Real, enlarged, inverted
At F No image Refracted rays are parallel
Between F and lens On the same side as the object Virtual, enlarged and upright
Images formed by Concave Lens
Position of object Position of image Nature of image
At infinity At focus Virtual, diminished, upright
Between infinity and F Between the object and the lens Virtual, diminished, upright