World Religions Midterm

amwages's version from 2017-03-10 05:27

Section 1

Question Answer
The author of this text defines the term "religion" as human transformation in response to perceived ultimacy
The key elements of the author's working definition of religion are __________. human, transformation, ultimacy
With respect to religious systems, "transformation" includes the characteristics of a(n) __________ from which transformation occurs, a(n) __________ toward which transformation is directed, and a(n) __________ by which transformation occurs. predicament, ideal state, means
The general term for belief in one or more personal gods is __________. polytheism
When speaking of spiritual ultimacy, Western religious traditions (e.g., Judaism, Christianity, Islam) tend to use __________ terms, whereas Eastern traditions (like Buddhism and Daoism) tend toward __________ language. personal (theistic), impersonal (monistic)
One significant development of the modern world is the rise of non-spiritual perceived ultimacies or "secular religions," among which the author includes __________. consumerism, Marxism, and the "new atheism"
While not reducible simply to its various functions, religion fills basic human drives, including __________ needs. psychological, social, and ultimacy
The author asserts that we can see the influence of religion in many aspects of the contemporary world, including the __________ arenas. artistic, economic, and political
The author argues for a "moral imperative" to study religion because __________. peaceful cooperation requires understanding other people, and appreciating their religious commitments is key to that understanding
Science and religion can be viewed as relating to each other in one of three different ways: __________. complementary, enemies, or non-competing
To study religions from the perspective of one's own perception of ultimacy is known as the __________ method. religious
The phenomenological approach to the study of religion requires the student to __________. understand a religion from the perspective of persons within that particular religious tradition
This text employs the __________ methods for the study of religion. comparative, historical, and phenomenological
This text takes as its fundamental focus for study of religions the __________ of a given religious tradition. worldview rooted in distinctive perceptions of ultimacy
Which of the following terms is a synonym for "ultimacy" in this study? sacred
The central distinguishing characteristic of a religious symbol is that it __________. enables people to participate in perceived ultimacy
Religious "myth" refers to __________. foundational stories that reveal how life is to be understood
Symbolic actions that create sacred space and time are calledreligious rituals
The term "indigenous religions" refers tothe earliest and most basic form of religion

Section 2

Question Answer
According to The World's Religions, which of the following designations for the religions of people like the Yoruba or Oglala poses the least problems? indigenous
According to the traditional indigenous worldview, what is the basic human problem? failure to respect the balance of all life
The belief that all of life is interconnected and that humans need to respect the balance of life means thathumans should respect the earth and all creatures, treating them with care
If disharmony is the root problem of human existence, thensocial chaos and individual disease or dislocation are fundamentally spiritual problems
Rituals are important to re-establishing life-balance becausethe whole people has a role in fostering and maintaining harmony
Which of the following is an accurate statement about the role of the shaman in indigenous religions?Through journeys into the spirit world the shaman acquires special knowledge.
The "taboo" against touching a menstruating woman shows a strong sense of the power of blood as the life-force of humanity
Which of the following best describes the understanding of time common among indigenous peoples? rhythmic and cyclical
The belief that a rabbit's foot brings good luck is a vestige of which of the following aspects of indigenous spirituality? totems
The pattern of separation, transition, and incorporation are distinguishing characteristics of the rites of passage of women and men in both indigenous and modern societies
Most Yoruba live in the modern nation ofNigeria
The high god in the Yoruba pantheon isOlorun
The most important of the Yoruba festivals is Odun Egungun, which focuses onthe ancestors of the father's family.
Two key characteristics of the Aladura Movement arecharismatic leadership and visionary interpretation of the Christian Bible
SanterĂ­a ("saint way") is a synthesis of Yoruba religion and Spanish Catholicism
Most of the adults of ________ still practice forms of Voodoo (Vodun).Haiti
The name "Sioux" meanslittle adders
The massacre at Wounded Knee on December 29, 1890, occurred as a result of the government's reaction to __________. the Ghost Dance
When a Lakota leader asked, "How can we put a price on our Mother?" he was referring in particular to __________. their reservation
Since 1890 most Oglala Lakota have lived in poverty __________. on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota
Wakan Tanka is addressed in Lakota prayers primarily as __________, whereas the Earth is addressed as __________. Father and Grandfather, Mother and Grandmother
The most important implement for the Oglala Lakota and many other Native American nations is the sacred __________. pipe
According to legend, the seven traditional rituals of the Lakota were given to the people by __________. White Buffalo Calf Woman
By the 1990s traditional Oglala spiritual practices __________. were undergoing renewal in a variety of ways

Section 3

Question Answer
By the middle of the twenty-first century India will surpass __________ to have the highest population of any country in the world. China
The indigenous people of India are known as the __________, which means "original a. dwellers." Adivasis
According to most historians, the __________ migrated from central Asia into northern India about 1500 B.C.E. Aryans
What is the Sanskrit name for the priestly class in traditional Hindu society?Brahmin
Established in C.E. 1526 and continuing in power until the 18th century, the greatest Muslim dynasty in India was __________. the Moghul Empire
This "great-souled" leader of the Indian National Congress skillfully orchestrated the movement of civil disobedience against British rule that ultimately convinced the Crown, in 1947, to allow India to become an independent, sovereign nation. Mohandas K. Gandhi
In 1947 India was partitioned into the nations of India and __________. Pakistan
The name "Hinduism" first emerged in India __________. when Muslims began to arrive
The Rig-Veda is a collection of __________. hymns to deities in the Hindu pantheon
One of the creation poems of the Rig-Veda (x.90) provides the earliest allusion to __________. the four-fold class (varna) system that would later evolve into the complex Indian caste system
The Laws of Manu are a collection of __________. religious and ethical guidelines for individuals and society
The major characters of the Bhagavad-Gita are the God Krishna and a warrior named __________. Arjuna
Which of the following occupational groupings is among the "untouchable" castes in traditional Hindu society? cremation workers
According to the Hindu philosophical tradition known as Advaita Vedanta, the idea that the material world is real is __________. an illusion created by our minds overcome with desire
This influential nineteenth-century Hindu reformer undertook a twelve-year spiritual journey, following the disciplines of Jainism, Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity; as a result, he became convinced that all religions are simply different paths to the same summit. Sri Ramakrishna
The most popular pilgrimage spots for all Hindus are __________. along the banks of the Ganges River
Which of the following organizations is part of the Hindu nationalist coalition? the Bharata Janata Party (BJP)
The Sanskrit term for the dominant theme in the Bhagavad Gita is __________. dharma