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World Philosophers and Works (Part I)

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gscrafton111's version from 2017-09-05 23:19

Section 1

Question Answer
George Boole (British)19th Century English mathematician best known for 'The Laws of Thought' (1854) which contains Boolean Algebra. Laid foundations for information age.
Aristotle (Greek)4th Century BC: Notable Ideas: Golden Mean / Syllogism / Hexis / Hylomorphism / Theory of the soul - 'Republics decline into democracies and democracies degenerate into despotisms'. Main figure in natural philosophy and Aristotelian ethics.
Galileo Galilei (Italian)16th - 17th Century: Italian, Piza born - Father of Scientific method - Invented thermoscope and military compasses - Proved the phases of Venus, discovered the four largest satellites of Jupiter, discovered Saturn's rings.
Plato (Greek)5th - 4th Century BC: Along with his teacher Scorates and his most famous student Aristotle, he laid the very foundations of Western Philosophy and science. Notable works: Apology / Phaedo / Symposium / Republic
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Section 2

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Pythagoras (Greek)
Noam Chomsky (American)
Mao Zedong (Chinese)
Vladimir Lenin (Russian)
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Section 3

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Friedrich Nietzsche (German)
John Locke (British)
Immanuel Kant (German)
Chanakya (Indian)
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Section 4

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Voltaire (French)
Descartes (French)
Adam Smith (Scottish)
CS Lewis (Irish, British, Welsh)
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Section 5

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Rousseau (Swiss, French)
Machiavelli (Italian)
Foucault (French)
Confucius (Chinese)
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Section 6

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Copernicus (German, Polish)
Jung (Swiss)
Trotsky (Russian)
Tolstoy (Russian)
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Section 7

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Francis Bacon (British)
Thomas Hobbes (British)
Camus (Algerian)
Cicero (Italian, Ancient Roman)
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Section 8

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Henry David Thoreau (American)
Xiaoping (Chinese)
Bertrand Russell (British)
Thomas Aquinas (Italian)
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Section 9

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William Wallace (Scottish)
Jean-Paul Sartre (French)
Ludwig Wittgenstein (Austrian)
David Hume (British, Scottish)
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Section 10

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JS Mill (British)
Jean Piaget (Swiss)
Blaise Pascal (French)
Muhammad Iqbal (Pakistani)
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Section 11

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Robert Hooke (British)
Eratosthenes (Greek)
Pliny the Elder (Ancient Roman)
John Dewey (American)
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Section 12

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Amartya Sen (Indian)
Emile Durkheim (French)
Alan Watts (British, American)
Adi Shankara (Indian)
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Section 13

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Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (Indian)
Hannah Arendt (German)
Democritus (Greek)
Montesquieu (French)
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Section 14

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Jeremy Bentham (British)
Arthur Schopenhauer (German)
Edmund Burke (Irish, British)
Freidrich Engels (German)
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Section 15

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William James (American)
Avicenna (Iranian)
Simone de Beauvoir (French)
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (German)
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Section 16

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Epicurus (Greek)
Hypatia (Ancient Roman)
Baruch Spinoza (Dutch)
Mary Wollstonecraft (British)
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Section 17

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Martin Heidegger (German)
Desiderius Erasmus (Dutch)
Thales (Greek)
Sun Tzu (Chinese)
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Section 18

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Zoroaster (Iranian)
Petrarch (Italian)
Ibn Khaldun
Karl Popper (British)
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Section 19

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Diogenes of Sinope (Greek)
William Penn (British)
Herbert Spencer (British)
Jaques Derrida (Algerian, French)
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Section 20

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Peter Singer (Australian)
Heraclitus (Greek)
Maimonides
Jiddu Krishnamurti (Indian)
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Section 21

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Umberto Eco
Galen (Greek)
Terence Mckenna (American)
Plutarch (Greek, Ancient Roman)
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Section 22

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John Rawls (American)
August Comte (French)
Robert Boyle (Irish, British)
Roland Barthes (French)
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Section 23

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Xenophon (Greek)
Roger Bacon (British)
Walter Benjamin (German)
Kurt Godel (American)
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Section 24

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Rosa Luxemburg (German, Polish)
Daniel Dennett (American)
Rudolf Steiner (Croatian)
Averroes (Spanish)
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Section 25

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Michel de Montaigne (French)
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