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World History Terms

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anandsingh's version from 2019-04-28 05:51

World History Terms 1

India

TermDefinition
Monhenjo-Daro & Harappatwin cities, Harappan civ, advanced buildings, farmed & wrote, declined ~1700 bc
Vedic Ageage of indo-aryan polytheism, caste system, led to new religions/culture
Vedasa collection of prayers/hymns of the indo-aryan relig that characterized the vedic age
Upanishadswritings of people who questioned vedic authority, brought about Vedanta (end of age)
Epicstwo stories of the vedic relig
Mahabharataepic about civil war, stresses acting the part of one’s class
Bhagavad Gitapart of Mahabharata, stresses the moral (^)
Ramayanaepic about hero and wife separated & reunited, shows example of good marriage
Aryans/Indo-Aryanspeople who migrated to India from north, brought relig of vedic age
Caste Systemnew social system in vedic, 4 classes + pariahs (kshatriyas, Brahmins, vaisyas, sudras)
Varnaa social caste
Jatisubdivisions of social castes
Hinduismnew relig that emerged, no longer polytheistic
Bhakti HinduismHinduism where people can worship their own personal god/manifestation of brahma
Monismnot polytheistic, but brahma is an essence that fills everything and manifests as dieties
Paramparasvariations on Hinduism, spread by gurus (teacher > student, becomes teacher, etc)
Samsarathe world of suffering, reborn in it until become one with brahma
Mayaillusion that hides real world, causes suffering, want to tell maya from reality
Karmapositive or negative force created by actions, determines status in next life
Dharmafulfillment of moral duty
Siddhartha Gautamathe Buddha, renounced possessions and meditated until Enlightenment, became buddha
Buddhismfollowing of ^, want to achieve nirvana
Theravedatraditional branch of Buddhism, Buddha is a teacher and leader
Mahayananontraditional branch of Buddhism, Buddha is a god and savior, had priests, temples, etc
Susrutadoctor, practiced cleanliness
The Mauryan Empirenew kingdom after the vedic age, consisted of all of northern India
Chandragupta Mauryatook control of a city, raised army and expanded to conquer all of n. India & start ^
Asokagrandson of C.M., violent, expanded over nearly all of India, later gave up violence & became budd.
Chandra Gupta I & IIrulers of the Gupta dynasty, controlled n. India and ruled over golden age
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China

TermDefinition
China Propermain, central polit region of china
The Shang Dynasty1st definite dynasty, bronze, oracle bones
The Zhou Dynastymandate of heaven, feudal states w/ no cent govt, Daoism and Confucianism
Mandate of Heavenidea that rulers were chosen by will of god, leaders could gain and lose mandate
The Qin Dynastyfirst Chinese empire, unified, great wall, autocracy
Qin Shihuangdiunified china, standardized everything, built great wall, harsh, censorship
The Han Dynastyinfluential and long, golden age, pax sinica and silk road, paper
Liu Bang/King of Hancommoner who revolted against Qin, called king of han, started han dynasty
Wu Dilongest han emp, expanded, civil service, leveling, pax sinica, silk road, paper, golden age
Levelingnew econ policy that evened out effects of good and bad harvest years
Pax Sinica“Chinese peace”, time of peace after wu di conquered nomads
Daoismway of nature, against work, disapproved of the unnatural
Laozifounder of Daoism, wrote the classic of the way and its power, shunned politics, power, wealth
Confucianismfilial piety, liked order and harmony, analects, humans are naturally bad, improve w/ edu
Legalismshi huang di, human nature is corrupt, good govt comes from rule of law, stick>carrot
Sui Dynastyshort, reunited china, grand canal
Tang Dynastygolden age, lit/poetry, mostly budd but Confucianism increased
Empress WuTang empress, only female ruler ever, strong Buddhist
Song Dynastytrade & arts, better civ service system, bigger cities
Silk Roadtrade route from china to Mediterranean, under wu di/pax sinica, prosperous trade
Mongols (china)Mongols controlled china in 1206-1368, prospered and expanded
Genghis Khanmongol who led conquest of china in 1206, good tactics
Kublai Khanruled over height of mongol control of china, started mongol yuan dynasty
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Greece

TermDefinition
Spartacity state, militant, aristocracy, large oppressed slave class (helots)
Athenscity state, birth of democracy, education
DracoAthenian archon, created written law code
SolonAthenian archon, cancelled debts of poor, outlawed debt slavery, created class system based on wealth
Peisistratusseized power as tyrant in Athens, improved economy, exiled rivals, took rich land gave & to poor
Cleisthenesinstated direct democracy, ended div of classes, divided into tribes that met in council of 500
Pedagoguegreek male slave who taught a young boy
Sophistgreek teachers before philosophers who taught rhetoric and emphasized memorization
persian warspersia had territory in Greece, greeks revolted, Persian darius invaded Greece in retaliation
battle of marathonAthenians defeated Persians & Darius to win the 1st Persian war
2nd Persian warxerxes invaded and 300 spartans defended, Persians defeated by athens
themistoclesAthenian general who defeated the Persian navy at salamis
delian leaguesystem of alliances betw city-states led by athens
periclesruler of Athenian empire, presided over golden age, almost completely democratic
peloponnesian warSparta resented Athenian leadership, surrounded Athens, eventually won
myronsculptor, discus thrower, people in action
phidiasathenas, zeus, giant statues of gods
praxitelessculptor, lifelike, delicate, admired body
Socratescriticized Athenian edu, esp rhetoric, criticized democracy, edu/thinking very important
Platotheory of forms, dialogues, the republic (ideal society), wanted aristocracy of intelligence
Aristotlelogical, examined principles of govt; thought best to have big mid class, midground of govt types
Hippocratesfounder of medicine, diseases are natural, Hippocratic oath
Herodotusfather of history, exaggerated, Persian wars
Thucydideshistorian, unbiased, Peloponnesian war
Phillip II of MacedoniaMacedonian, recruited paid army, conquered greece
alexander the greatson of phillip ii, conquered, intentionally spread helen. culture, divine monarch
Archimedesgreatest scientist of Hellenistic period, pi, lever
Cynicismschool of thought, live according to nature; pleasure wealth & social class are bad, Diogenes
Stoicismschool of thought, divine reason directs world, must do as gods direct, Zeno
Skepticismschool of thought, no definite knowledge, (everything always changing), Pyrrho
Epicureanismschool of thought, aim of life to seek pleasure, want to limit desires, Epicurus
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Rome

TermDefinition
Consulsexecutive roman official
Praetorsjudicial roman official
Censorstake census, moral police
first punic warrome vs carthage, rome built navy and won
second punic warcarthage invaded rome, romans invaded Africa and won there, ended up w/ helen. world too
HannibalSpanish general for carthage who invaded rome, successful but had to turn back & was defeated
Scipioroman general who invaded carthage, defeated Hannibal at the battle of Zama to win 2nd punic war
third punic warrome went to carthage and burned it to the ground
latifundialarge roman estates acquired by wealthy romans, this was bad for poor farmers
colonusnew type of farmer, tenant, rented plot of land and most money went to the owner
tiberius & gaius gracchustried to legally fix the latifundia problem by gaining office and giving to poor
the social warItalian allies wanted citizenship, rebelled, defeated by still granted citizenship
gaius mariusroman military hero, consul, revolutionized army by paying, now loyal to general not govt
lucius cornelius sulladid what gracchi wanted w/ army, took over as dictator, recreated senate gave it power
first triumvirateCaesar (polit power, for poor) & Pompey (army) & Crassus ($), Caesar emerges powerful
julius Caesardefeats Pompey & ruled, citizenship for all, good ruler, jealous senators killed him
second triumvirateOctavian, Marc Antony, Lepidus, lep retires and oct+ant split empire, fight & oct wins
octavian/augustusbecame emperor, called self princes, expanded empire out until defeated in germany
trajanSpanish general who ruled rome as a “good emperor”, added to empire, reached height of rome’s size
Hadrian“good emperor”, arts, wall, gave back trajan’s conquest
Marcus aurelius“good emperor”, educated, stoic, didn’t like war but had to defend, power to weak son
Diocletianemperor, divided rome in half b/c too big, tried to stop econ decline, persecuted christians
pax romanatime of roman peace from augustus to marcus aurelius, good econ, unity, strong army
conflict of the ordersfight betw patricians and plebians for pleb rights, plebs eventually gain some
12 tablesnew laws to fit large empire, written down (victory for plebs), idea that law is common to everyone
bread & circusduring pax romana, govt gave free food and entertainment to keep the people happy
ptolemyastronomer, thought earth was center of universe
virgilroman poet, wrote the Aeneid, about prince who flees troy to italy, descendents are rom & rem
tacituswrote annals, criticized augustus, luxury of wealthy, decline of rome
reasons for declinegovt meant for small area, high expenses so disrepair, wealth concentrated in few
law & citizenship?
alaricnew Visigoth king, led into rome and took over
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Judaism/Christianity

TermDefinition
Judaismlived in Judea in rome, monotheistic, wanted independence, revolted multiple times
Christianityexpanded on Judaism, jesus is messiah, legitimized by jesus’ martyrdom
Abrahamfounder of monotheism, first jew, ethical monotheism, led followers to Judea, covenant w/ god
Davidkilled goliath, became king, rules for golden age, model messiah
Mosesbush says free jews, plagues, leads thru desert > mt Sinai, gets commandments, dies before holy land
Judearoman province in which jews were led by Abraham, live, want independence
Jesusjew, preached & got following, furthered 10 commandments, feared & killed by romans
saul/pauljew, converted Christian, spread Christianity, went all over, then executed in rome
Constantineroman emperor, protected Christianity and created capital of constantinople
council at nicaeaConstantine established chris church, holy trinity and resurrection agreed upon
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Africa

TermDefinition
Bantulanguage family, spread across Africa starting in Nigeria/Cameroon
usufruct societypeople had right to use a piece of land but not own it
pastoralismherding of animals
dogon societyrelig society in mali, advanced religion, trained soothesayers
sukor societysociety in Nigeria, had ironworking, priests became kings, people had specialized jobs
pakot societystateless, society in Kenya, cattle, self-sufficient, women govern domestic life, council of elders
shona societygroup who had gathered in what is now Zimbabwe, created fortresses, gained wealth
great Zimbabwelargest fortress of the shona, shows rapid decline in 1400s
SwahiliAfrican-muslim culture in east Africa, spoke Swahili, lots of trade, divided into city-states
kush kingdomarose in nubia along nile, grew apart from Egypt, peaked ~250bc
aksum kingdomrival to kush, converted Christian, defeated kush, thrived until rise of islam
Timbuktubig trade port in W. Africa, became center of songhay kingdom
Griotsstorytellers, legal advice, keep genealogy of royalty
Sundiataepic about kings and battle, shows unreliability of sources like it
GhanaW. African kingdom, earliest, Christian, short-lived b/c attacked by muslim berbers
MaliW. African kingdom, after Ghana, muslim, fell in 1400s, wealthy b/c middle of gold-salt trade
mansa musagreatest leader of mali, made pilgrimage to mecca w/ 80k others
songhay3rd major W. African kingdom, centered in trading city of Gao
sunni alifounder of songhay, strict govt, provinces, fleet of warships
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