World History Final Review

overson's version from 2017-05-17 02:46


Question Answer
Absolute Monarchya monarch whose actions are restricted neither by written law nor by custom
Democracya system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives.
Constitutional MonarchyA form of national government in which the power of the monarch is restrained by a parliament, by law, or by custom.
CzarAn emperor of Russia before 1917
Boyarsa member of the old aristocracy in Russia, next in rank to a prince.
Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizenan important document of the French Revolution and in the history of human and civil rights.
Tennis Court OathAn oath that the members of the 3rd estate took vowing "not to separate, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require.
Enlightenmentthe action of enlightening or the state of being enlightened.
RenaissanceThe cultural rebirth that occurred in Europe from roughly the fourteenth through the middle of the seventeenth centuries
Reformationthe action or process of reforming an institution or practice.
Catholic Reformationthe period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation
Martin LutherFounder of Protestantism. Created the 95-theses
Nicolas CopernicusFigured out that the earth was not the center of the universe.
Galileo GalileiInvented a new telescope that discovered 4 moons circling around Jupiter
Sir Francis Baconserved both as Attorney General and as Lord Chancellor of England.
Sir Isaac NewtonDiscovered gravity
Scientific RevolutionBrought us modern science
Militarismthe belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests.
Imperialisma policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
Nationalismpatriotic feeling, principles, or efforts.
HugunotsA french protestant
ArmadaA fleet of warships
Thirty Years Warthe early seventeenth century that involved France, Spain, Sweden, Denmark, Austria, and numerous states of Germany.
Seven Years WarA war fought in the middle of the eighteenth century between the German kingdom of Prussia, supported by Britain, and an alliance that included Austria, France, and Russia. Prussia and Britain won, and their victory greatly increased their power.
The Directorythe body of five directors in power in France from 1795 until their overthrow by Napoleon in 1799
GuillotineThe most popular form of punishment
VersaillesA city of north-central France west-southwest of Paris.
English Bill of Rightsa British Law, passed by the Parliament of Great Britain in 1689 that declared the rights and liberties of the people
Vernacularthe language or dialect spoken by the ordinary people in a particular country or region.
Humanisman outlook or system of thought attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or supernatural matters.
PerspectivePeople started painting in 3D instead of 2D
SecularThings not regarded as religious, spiritual, or sacred
Printing Pressinvented in the Holy Roman Empire by the German Johannes Gutenberg around 1440, based on existing screw presses.
Trench Warfarea type of combat in which opposing troops fight from trenches facing each other.
No-Man’s-LandThe territory between both trenches on both sides of a battle.
Article 231Also known as The Treaty of Versailles. The treaty that ended World War 1
14 PointsFourteen goals of the United States in the peace negotiations after World War I.
League of Nationsthe forerunner of the United Nations, brought about much international cooperation on health, labor problems, refugee affairs, and the like.
BastilleFortress in Paris. Used as a prison by Kings in France.
Continental Systemthe foreign policy of Napoleon I of France in his struggle against Great Britain during the Napoleonic Wars.
John Lockeone of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers
Committee of Public Safetyformed the de facto executive government in France during the Reign of Terror
Estatesa major political or social group or class, especially one once having specific political powers, as the clergy, nobles, and commons in France or the lords spiritual, lords temporal, and commons in England.
Republic of virtueMaximilien Robespierre’s speech that equated democracy with virtue and justified the use of terror in defending democracy.
HeliocentrismThe planets revolve around the sun
Edict of Nantesranted the Calvinist Protestants of France (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in the nation
Explain what the Enlightenment is and the ideas that caused worldwide change.A sprawling intellectual, philosophical, cultural, and social movement that spread through England, France, Germany, and other parts of Europe during the 1700s.
How did Louis XIV obtain and maintain Absolute power in France?By saying his power came from God
Describe the three Estates in France?First Estate (clergy); the Second Estate (nobility); and the Third Estate (commoners). The king was considered part of no estate.
Which European countries became Constitutional Monarchies in the 17th century?Britain.
How did Peter the Great try to improve Russia? Was he successful?He tried to get a warm water port. He was successful.
How did art change during the Renaissance?People became more interested in perspective. The element of realism became prominent in paintings.
What did Machiavelli argue in his book, The Prince?Do whatever it takes to stay in power.
How did Martin Luther spread the word of Lutheranism?The 95-theses
What was Martin Luther’s complaint about the church?Sale of Indulgences
Why did European Nations seek new territories in Africa and Asia in the late 1800’s? What did they gain?Humanitarian and Religious Goals
Was the League of nations a success or a failure?Success. 48 states had signed the League Covenant, pledging to work together to eliminate aggression between countries.
How was the Western front different from the Eastern front in World War I?The Western front used trench warfare.
What was the result of WWI? Who won, who lost?The allies won
What is article 231? What are the 14 points?Also known as The Treaty of Versailles. The treaty that ended World War 1. Fourteen goals of the United States in the peace negotiations after World War I.
How did the thinkers of the Scientific Revolution change society? What were some of the new ideas that came from the Scientific Revolution?The thoughts that not everything revolved around G-d
What was the main idea or movement that lead to the American and French Revolutions?Liberty, Equality, National rights.