The grinding away of bedrock by fragments of rock incorporated in ice, water, or wind.
The ease of approach to one location from other locations. This may be measured in terms of physical distance, cost distance, or time distance.
A simple measure of accessiblity for any selected node.
A site located on an upland.
A net change in population due to a lack of balance between births and immigration on the one hand and deaths and emigration on the other. See also Natural Change.
A pattern of economic activity in which industries concentrate in the same location. It may also apply to concentrations of particular commercial shops and services.
A mass of ice, situated on an upland, which may be moving, or has moved, overland.
A process that takes apart a raw material, breaking it down into its constituent parts.
An arch-like upfold in buckled, bent or contorted rock. See also Syncline.
Equipment and processes most suited to the prevailing technology of a region. Thus, the introduction of ox-ploughing may be more suitable than the provision of tractors.
Fan-shaped delta, like that of the Nile.
A steep knife-edged ridge between cirques in a mountainous region.
A fragment of solidified lava, less than 4mm across, ejected during explosive volcanic eruptions.
A volcanic Peak with a roughly circular base tapering to a point, formed by layers of ash and lava thrown out during a volcanic explosion. Ash-and-cinder cones are associated with thick lava and much ash.
That zone of Earth's mantle which lie beneath the relatively rigid lithosphere. The asthenosphere is composed of hot, semi-molten, and therefore deformable, rock.
A sand dune formed with the horns pointing downwind.
A wide-mouthed recess in the line of the coast, filled with sea water and with open access to the sea.
A ridge of mud, sand, or shingle extending across a bay. It may be formed when spits stretch out from each side of the bay and meet.
An accumulation of sediment deposited by waves and longshore drift along a bay.
A mass of upland, bounded by faults. The surrounding rocks may have sunk. the mountain block may have risen, or both may have occurred.
The process by which moisture attracted to soil particles, rises up through soil as a result of strong surface tension.
An economic system needing high levels of investment, frequently in the form of financial capital resources. See also labour intensive.
Any resource designed by society to further the creation of wealth, including plant, machinery, buildings, components, and the money needed for production.
The breakdown of rocks that causes chemical change, including the processes of corrosion, hydrolysis, and oxidation. See also physical weathering.
A circular hollow cut into bedrock during glaciation. The side and back walls are steep but the front opens out downslope.
The practice of cutting down all the trees on a site. This leaves the ground unprotected against erosion and is unattractive.
The average weather conditions of a region. The recorded average is the result of many years of observations of weather.
The natural vegetation in the last possible stage of vegetation development. Climax vegetation is in equilibrium with physical conditions and should undergo only minor changes.
A graph of monthly average temperature plotted agist average humidity. The monthly points are joined by a line. The shape and location of the line thus drawn indicates the nature of climate in terms of heat and humidity.
Any agriculture system that is geared to the sale of its products.
Commercial land use
The assignment of land to shops, shopping centres and malls, offices and businesses.
A means by which information is exchanged. See also transportation linkage.
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