Women and The Soviet Family

noorgal's version from 2018-06-14 13:29


Question Answer
When was the Worker and Kolkhoz Woman?1937,
How were women depicted in government propaganda 1917-40Difference in gender roles, women = child bearing (Like Russian religious art pre 1917)
When was 'Tanya' tortured and killed by the German soldiers, and what did it show?1942, campaigns followed showed women needed to be protected = enforce gender roles.
When did Valentina Tereshkova go to space?1963
What was Brezhnev's 'pro-natal campaign' like in mid 70s?emphasised 'natural differences between sexes'.
What were women who neglected children to work accused of in late 70s?Responsible for juvenile delinquency and alcoholism
What % of the workforce were women in 195549%
What was the female department of the party called?Zhenotdel
Who led the Zhenotdel?Alexandria Kollontai
What % of men used prostitutes in 1920s?39%
How did NEP affect women in towns working?factory role = widespread unemployment: turned to prostitution
How did amount of women in industry change from 5yrP?1928: 3 million, 1940: 13 million
How many women were in higher edu from 1929-40?1929: 20% , 1940: 40%
What happened to women's opportunities and wages during 5yrP? Refused jobs due to gender and paid 60-65% men's wages
What % of jobs were occupied by women in 1960?45% - but low skilled
What % clerical worker in health / edu were women?74%
When was BAM recruitment 1974 rail line
Why was BAM sexist?Young unmarried women hired to satisfy male workers
What % of female graduates were women in 1960?50%
What % of doctors were women in 1985?70% - but paid lower wages
How was life like for women working in the country in 1920-40?Triple shift- work, household and make goods to sell
How did collective farms affect women?Higher status
How did female tractor drivers fare from NEP to 1940?NEP: 8 , 1940: 50,000 - but still only 0.5% population (most unskilled + little $)
When was Virgin Lands Scheme recruitment for women?1954-74
What was the Virgin Lands Scheme for women like?Young women used to entice men to move to virgin lands, sexual abuse rife. Men priority with machinery
August 1958 VLS, how many women were in wellpaid jobs?<450 of 640
What % of farms were de-mechanised in 198365%
What percentage of women were farm managers in 70s/80s?2%
In 1970, what % of lowest paid farm workers were women? 72%
What year were women turned away from fighting in WW2?1941
How many women in military combat roles in 1945?800,000
What was the WW2 Like for women?Initial sexism decreased as accomplishments grew, but after demobilised = short lived equality
WWII women icons?Lydia Litvyak shot 12 german planes and 'Night Witches Squadron'
What % of party delegates were women in 19185%
What % party members were women in 1918 to 192810% -> 12% = stagnation
What / when was the Obshchesttvennitsa?1930s: female party members give up work to organise charity work
What % party members were women in 1956 to 1983?19.7% -> 26%
conclusion: Changing status of women?Shifting policies, reflected male suspicion = narrow bounds of female liberation
conclusion: Female party membersIncreased participation / education but not important role
What was family life like in 1920s?progressive reforms
What were Lenin + Trotsky's views compared to Kollontai on family life?Kollontai: free love + communal living. L/T = + conservative but reform abuses of marriage
When was Zhenotdel?1919-30
When was postcard divorce, equal work /pay laws?1919 - meaningless as democracy abolished in 1912
In 1930, what % of uni students were female, compared to UK's 20%28%
What was made legal for the first time in the world under Lenin?Abortion
When was the'Great Retreat'? Stalin's conservative response to issues from Lenin's liberalism1936-53
What happened under the great retreat?Abortion criminalised, outside wedlock sex stigmatised
What was Stalin's pronatalist campaign rewards?5000 roubles for 11 kids for 5 years
What % of population were female in 1959?55%
What were Khrushchev's female family reforms of 1956?Women magazines created, maternity leave increased to 112 days
When did Khrushchev decriminalise Abortion?1955
What were Brezhnev's female family views?Clear gender roles and sexual morality; 1982: 2x housework than men
What was the problem with Khrushchev's maternity leave extension?Employers refused to acknowledge legality.
What was Brezhnev's only female family reform?Pension lowered to 55 for females
Why did Stalin revert policy back to monogamous marriage?Stable environment to bring up children = good workers for industrialisation

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