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Wk4 Cell Bio

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winniesmith's version from 2017-01-03 17:48

Section 1

Question Answer
What does modern cell biology aim to do to understand cellular processes in terms of chemical and physical reactions
What percentage of mass to inorganic ions constitute too1% or less and include:Na+,K+, Mg2+,Ca2+, Phosphate (HPO42−), Cl−, Bicarbonate (HCO3−)
Four classes of organic moleculesCarbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids
What do carbohydrates includePolysaccharides and simple sugars (mono)
What are monosaccharides Simple sugars- major nutrients of cells (CH20)n. Glucose (C6H1206)=provides the principal source of cell energy.
How are monosaccharides joined togetherBy dehydration reactions (h20 removed), linked by glycosidic bond.
what are Oligosacchardides polymers of a few sugars
what are polysaccharides macromolecules; polymers of 100's/1000's of sugars.
what are two common polysaccharidesGlycogen- storage of glucose in animals. Starch- storage in plants. Both are made of all molecules in alpha configuration.
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Section 2

Question Answer
what are the 3 main roles of lipidsEnergy storage Major component of cell membranes Important in cell signaling as steroid hormones and messenger molecules.
What are fatty acidslong hydrocarbon chains (16 or 18 c) with a carboxyl group (COO-) at one end. Unsaturated 1+ =bond. Saturated none. Hydrocarbon chain= hydrophobic.
How are fatty acids storedas tricylglycerols or fats. Accumulate as insoluble fat droplets in cytoplasm.
Which are more efficient energy storage: fats or carbs?Fats- yield more than 2x energy per weight of material broken down (important for animals cus of mobility).
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Section 3

Question Answer
What are phospholipids principal components of cell membranes; consist of two fatty acids joined to a polar head group. Hydrophobic tail, hydrophilic head.
What are glycerol phospholipids the fatty acids are bound to glycerol. The third carbon of glycerol is bound to a phosphate group, which is often bound to another polar group.
What are sphingomyelinthe only nonglycerol phospholipid in cell membranes. Polar head group formed from serine instead of glycerol.
What does amphipathic meanHave both hydrophobic and philic parts
What are glycolipids two hydrocarbon chains and a carbohydrate polar head group (amphipathic)
What is cholesterol four hydrophobic hydrocarbon rings and a polar hydroxyl (OH) group (amphipathic).
What are steroid hormones derivatives of cholesterol; act as chemical messengers.
What do derivatives of phospholipids serves asmessenger molecules within cells.
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Section 4