WK3 P2 Cell Bio

winniesmith's version from 2017-01-03 12:21

Section 1

Question Answer
What do in vitro culture systems enablethe study cell (eg. animal) growth and differentiation, and perform genetic manipulations.
What types of cells are used.Embryos or tumors= frequently starting materials cus they contain rapidly growing cells. Embryo fibroblasts grow particularly well in culture (most widely studied animal cell).
What are embryonic stem cellscells that maintain their ability to differentiate into all of the cell types of adult organisms.
Why are embryonic stem cells importantimportant role in studying gene function(in mice). offer possibility of treating human diseases by transplant therapies.

Section 2

Question Answer
What must the culture media/um for animal cells includeSalts and glucose, and various amino acids and vitamins that cells can’t make for themselves.
who discovered this?Harry Eagle (1955) 1st to describe a defined medium for animal cells. This has enabled scientists to grow a wide variety of cells under defined experimental conditions
What is a primary culture?An initial cell culture from tissue.
How do you form a secondary culture?Cells from primary can be replated at a lower density (many times)- most norm cells (ex. firbroblasts) cannot be grown in culture indefinitely.
What is referred to as 'permanent or immortal cell lines'Embryonic stem cells or tumor cells that can proliferate indefinitely in culture- provide continuous&uniform source of cells.

Section 3

Question Answer
What are viruses?Intracellular parasites that cannot replicate on their own.
How do viruses reproduce?by infecting host cells and usurping the cellular machinery to produce more virus particles.
What do viruses consist of?DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat. (Look like round nerd jelly beans)
What are bacterial viruses also known as?bacteriophages.
What does bacteriophage T4 infectE.coli- on a culture of bacteria on agar, replication of T4 leads to formation of clear areas of lysed cells (plaques).
What are viral mutantsmutants that grow in one strain of E.coli but not another. Easy to isolate.
compare T4 to E.coliT4 manipulated more readily than E.coli. T4 is 23 times smaller, further facilitating genetic analysis.

Section 4

Question Answer
What are retrovirsusesThey have RNA genomes but synthesize a DNA copy of their genome in infected cells. These viruses first demonstrated the synthesis of DNA from RNA templates.
What did Peyton Rous describe (1911) that some animal viruses convert normal cells to cancer cells.