WK1 P2 Cell Bio

winniesmith's version from 2016-11-18 09:51

Section 1

Question Answer
2 types of present day prokaryotesArchaebacteria and Eubacteria
what are archaebacteriamany live in extreme environments.
what are eubacteria a large group that live in a wide range of environments.
Size of most bacteria cells small, diameters of 1-10um.
DNA size of most bacteria 0.6 to 5 millions base pairs, coding for 5000 different proteins.
What are cyanobacteria the group in which photosynthesis evolved, are the largest and most complex prokaryotes.
Describe E.colia typical prokaryotic cell. Rigid cell wall of polysaccharides and peptides. Cell wall is a plasma membrane made of phospholipids. Single circular DNA molecule. approx 30,000 ribosomes.

Section 2

Question Answer
Nucleus largest organelle: Contains the linear DNA molecules Site of DNA replication and RNA synthesis.
Mitochondria site of oxidative metabolism
Lysosomes and Peroxisomes specialized metabolic compartments for the digestion of macromolecules and for various oxidative reactions
Endoplasmic reticulumnetwork of intracellular membranes, extending from the nuclear membrane throughout the cytoplasm. It functions in processing and transport of proteins and lipid synthesis.
Golgi apparatus proteins are further processed and sorted for transport to their final destinations. Also serves as a site of lipid synthesis;
Cytoskeletonnetwork of protein filaments extending throughout the cytoplasm. Provides structural framework Determines cell shape and organization Involved in movement of whole cells, organelles, and chromosomes during cell division.

Section 3

Question Answer
How are eukaryote organelles meant to have arisen?by endosymbiosis- prokaryotic cells living inside the ancestors of eukaryotes. Evidence strong in mitochondria.
Evidence of endosymbiosis (mitochondria (M))M- similar size to bacteria. Like bacteria they reproduce by dividing by two (asexually). Bother contain there own DNA (encoding some of their compartments. DNA replicated when organelle divides, genes are transcribed within organelle and translated on organelle ribosomes. Ribosomes/Ribosome DNA are more closely related to those of bacteria than the ones encoded by eukaryote nuclear genome.
What is the simplest eukaryotesyeast
what is the size of yeast?6um in diameter, 12 million base pairs of DNA.
When did multicellular organiams evolve?1-2 billion years ago
What led to complex and diverse present-day animals?Increasing specialization and division of labor among the cells of multicellular organisms
What are the 5 main tissue types?Epithelial,connective,blood,nervous, muscular.

Section 4

Question Answer
Epithelial cells form sheets that cover the surface of the body and line internal organs
Connective include bone, cartilage, and adipose tissue. Loose connective tissue is formed by fibroblasts
Bloodcontains several different types of cells: Red blood cells (erythrocytes) function in oxygen transport. White blood cells (granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes) function in inflammatory reactions and the immune response
Nervous tissue is composed of supporting cells and nerve cells, or neurons, and various types of sensory cells.
Muscle cells are responsible for the production of force and movement.