Wildlife Diseases

moonlup's version from 2017-03-23 00:40

Section 1

Question Answer
What are key predator NA species?Bald Eagle, Alligator, Jaguar,Puma, Raccoon, Goose, AZ Bark Scorpion,and Polar Bear
What are key prey NA species?Bison, Moose, Beaver, WTD, and Mule Deer.
What killed the Saiga antelopes of Kazakh?Pasteurellosis with Cold Winter and Hot Spring
What's the epidemiology triangle?Host, Environment, and Agent (of Disease)
What are the 3 D's? Determinants, Deterrence, Distribution
Habitat LossHabitat changed from one type to another
Habitat FragmentationOriginal Habitat patches surrounded by altered habitat

Section 2

Question Answer
The Three main types of TuberculosisMycobacterium bovis, M. avium, M. tuberculosis
How do you stain Mycobacterium?acid-fast
How is Mycobacterium transmitted?Aerosol, ingestion
What is a tubercle?fibrous encapsulation of lesion
What is a granuloma?thick capsule around a tubercle
What wild animals are susceptible to M. bovis?Elk, Moose, Bison, WTD, MD, Coyote, Coons, Foxes, BBears, feral cats
Common clinical signs of TB?Emaciation, pulmonary TB, Lassitude
Does tubercle = TB?Nope
Gold standard TB testsCulture, Molecular Characterization
Deer bTB control measuresIncreased hunting, banned feeding, fencing

Section 3

Question Answer
What causes Red Water?Babesiosis
What is Babesiosis?tick-borne protozoan disease
Babesiosis Symptomsfever, hemolytic anemia, hemoglobinuria, jaundice, uremia, death
Which species causes disease in NA?B. bigemina (tropic) and B. major (temperate)
What tick genus transmits Babesia?Boophilus (none are US native), Amblyoma
Most common tick to transmit in NA?Boophilus annulatus, Texas fever tick
Successful transmission of Babesia depends on:Infected RBC conc, Infected Replete Tick females dropping from diseased host, Hatched eggs, Infected Larva, Attached Larva, Host immunity and Resistance
Enzootic Stabilitycontinuous low-level infection resulting in calves that are asymptomatic, mild disease
Enzootic InstabilitySporadic transmission, resulting in naive animals with severe disease
What causes hemoglobinuria?RBCs lysed in vessels by Babesia
Which Babesia is more pathogenic?B. major
Diagnose Babesiasmears, IFA, RA, IHA, ELISA, DNA

Section 4

Question Answer
What is Anaplasmosis?tick-borne disease caused by Anaplasma
Anaplasmosis symptomsfever, severe debility, emaciation, anemia, jaundice
Which species causes disease in Bison?Anaplasma marginale
What transmits Anaplasmosis?biting insects, not just ticks
Which tick transmits Anaplasma?Ixodid ticks, 3 hosts
Why no hemoglobinuria in Anaplasmosis?Parasitized RBCs removed by spleen before lysis
Disease forms of AnaplasmosisPeracute, Acute, Mild, Chronic
What is Peracute Anaplasmosis?Sudden high fever, anemia, icterus, dyspnea, and death. Hyperexcitable.
What is Acute Anaplasmosis?Fever, anemia, Jaundice, Dyspnea, emaciation, PICA
What is Mild Anaplasmosis?Calves <1yr, temp depression, anorexia, dehydration, and mucopurulent discharge
What is Chronic Anaplasmosis?Recovery from Acute.
Ways to prevent anaplasmosistick removal, fencing

Section 5

Question Answer
What diseases have boars been found with?M. bovis, Lepto, Brucella, Trichinella, T. gondii
What boar disease is not found in NA?Classical Swine Fever Virus
What is Leptospirosis?acute infective illness caused by spirochetes
What species are we most concerned with for Lepto?Leptospira interrogans, over 250 serovars
What are the CS of Lepto?acute jaundice (if hemo in GIT), hemorrhages, pale pigs, rapid death. Chronic causes abortions
What tests are used for Lepto?Paired sera, plate screening, agglutination, fluorescent Ab technique, ELISA
How do you prevent humans from getting Lepto?avoid contact with things contaminated by urine or tissue
What is Brucellosis?zoonotic disease caused by Brucella, aka many names
What are the strains of Brucllosis and who do they affect?B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis, all infect pigs
What is the reservoir for B. abortus?cattle
What is the reservoir for B. suis?swine
What is the reservoir for B. melitensis?goats and sheep
How is Brucellosis trasmitted?via mm of GIT, genitals, and skin, fecal contamination, vaginal discharge, fetuses
What are the CS of Brucellosis?abortion storms, infertility, placenta retention, metritis, enlarged/atrophied testicles, humans: undulating fever
How to Dx Brucellosis?Culture, serology, agglutination
How do you treat Brucellosis?Cull reactors

Section 6

Question Answer
Drug requirements for wild animalspotent, rapid, reversible, safe, stable, cheap, available, non-irritating, stable
How do you plan chemical capture?avoid heat, don't chase, avoid noise, load and transport ASAP, tranquilize, use proper dose, release in suitable habitat
What do you need for chemical capture besides chemicals?equipment, time, route, permits, transports
What drugs are used?Opioids, Cyclohexamines, NM blockers, Sedatives, Tranquilizers
What do Cyclohexamines do?dissociatives, somatic analgesia
What drugs are cyclohexamines?ketamine, tiletamine, phencyclidine
What do you need to use with cyclohexamines?sedatives like xylazine
What animals is ketamine used in?carnivores, primates, reptiles, birds
What reverses ketamine?A2 antagonists, yohimbine, doxapram
What is Telazol/Zoletil?Tiletamine and Zolazepam
Who do you use Telazol in?primates and carnivores
What does etorphine do?causes areflexia and immobilization in 2-8 min for 1 hr
What causes renarcotization?etorphine recycling from enterohepatic circulation or redistribution from adipose
What types of drugs should etorphine be used with?sedatives or tranquilizers
What reverses etorphine?Diprenorphine, nalorphine, and naloxone
Where should an animal be darted?gluteal and scapula regions
What are the drug response phases?induction, maintenance, recovery

Section 7

Question Answer
What are lagomorphs?Leporidae and Ochotonidae
How are hares different from rabbits?bigger and lankier, black markings, eat bark and twigs
What is Tularemia?Extremely pathogenic bacteria, Francisella tularensis
What are reservoirs of F. tularensis?Lagomorphs, Aquatic Rodents, Lemmings
What are the vectors for F. tularensis?Ticks, mosquitoes, and biting flies
What species carries tularemia in the US?Cottontail rabbits and ground squirrels
Which 4 states have more than half the cases?AK, MS, SD, OK
Which ticks carry Tularemia?Amblyomma americanum (Lone Star), Dermacentor andersoni (RM Wood tick)
What does F. tularensis look like?weak staining G- coccobacilli, nonmotile, bipolar, anaerobic
Which type is found in NA? What are its features?Type A, highly virulent, mortality in 5-6% untreated
What are the forms of tularemia?Ulceroglandular, Glandular, Oropharyngeal, Oculoglandular, Typhoidal, Septic, Pneumonic
How are humans infected?inhalation, ingestion, incisions/Abrasions, unbroken skin
Symptoms of Tularemia?Fever, Headache, Chills, Rigor, Sore throat, lethargy, anorexia. Symptoms tend to be severe.
How do you Dx Tularemia?Culture, PCR, ELISA, TRF, MS
How do you prevent tularemia?vaccinate
How do you treat tularemia?gentamicin and amoxicillin
What lab level can work with F. tularensis?2/3/4 due to potent bio-terrorist possibility
How is tularemia controlled in the wild?surveillance of ticks and deceased lagos
What other disease can lagomorphs get?WNV, Yersiniosis. (Clost, salm, coccid, toxop, mange, rabies, hemmorrhagic fevers)

Section 8

Question Answer
What are the NA reservoirs of rabies?Raccoons and skunks, transmit 80% of cases
What is PEP?Post Exposure Prophylaxis
Who invented PEP?Louis Pasteur
What is rabies?acute encephalitis caused by the rabies virus
Which rabies strain is most prevalent in NA?mid-Atlantic strain (37% of all cases)
When did epizootic rabies outbreaks occur?1950s in FL, migrated north
How is rabies transmitted?Infected saliva introduced to uninfected animal's blood
What is DFAT?Direct fluorescent antibody test, detects rabies proteins in brain
How is rabies controlled?population control, baiting, avoiding raccoons, education
How do you know winter baits were eaten?Tetracycline Hydrochloride marks urine
What other diseases are found in furbearing animals?CDV, Parvo, Mange, Lepto

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