tasnimjaisee's version from 2018-02-12 17:17

Chapter 2

Question Answer
Feminismsocial movement that seeks equality of opportunity for all people, regardless of gender... a political perspective that uses gender to critically analyze power
1st principle of feminismbiological sex =/= identity
2nd principle of feminismPersonal is political
3rd principle of feminismSocial & political movement concerned about patterns of domination & politics of gender, race, class & sexual orientation
Feminist pedagogyTeaching methods & approaches in classroom that adopted by feminists in WGST programs; later adopted by men and women teaching in various disciplines - Empowering students to become critical and creative thinkers
First Wave Feminismlate 19th & early 20th century European & North American mobilization to gain voting rights & professions to women; policy changes regarding regulating alcohol & prostitution - Charity eading to social reform & suffrage - Upper/middle class/classism
Married Women's Property ActStarting in Ontario gave married women in these provinces the same legal rights as men, which allowed women to be able to enter into legal agreements and buy property
Dates of provinces that signed the Women's property actOntario: 1884, Manitoba 1900, Quebec 1964
Person's ActDefining “persons” under the BNAA Act, 1867 - The Famous Five petitioned the government in 1928 to ask the Supreme Court of Canada to decide whether “persons” in the Act included women
Why did the Supreme Court decided to not do the person's act?BNAA in 1928 had to maintain the meaning “persons” would have been given by the courts when it was passed in 1867 - Common law said women wouldn't hold political office - If Brtish parliment intended women to be included as qualified person under section 24 of the act, it would have done so
What did the appeal to the Privy Council was launched in 1929 do?Council decided the word “person” in itself was not clear & better understood of BNAA had wider interpretation - If the law was to exclude women specifically should have been clearly stated in the Act
Who was Cairine Reay Wilson?1st woman appointed to the Senate 1930
Vote for women began changing in which year and which provinces?1916 - Ontario to BC
Explain the War-time Elections Act1916, gave women in military with male relatives fighting in World War I the right to vote
Last province to extend the right to vote in provincial elections to women?Quebec 1940
Last territory to extend the right to vote in provincial elections to women?Northwest Territories, 1951
When were all Canadians were granted the right to vote, including Aboriginal men and women?1960
What did the Fair Employment Practices Act do?Eliminate discrimination by implementing fines and creating a complaints system
What did the Female Employees Fair Remuneration Act do?provide women with equal pay for work of equal value
Canada Fair Employment Practices Act of 1953civil service
The Female Employees Equal Pay Act of 1956wage discrimination based on sex against the law
Employment Equity Act of 1986Federally regulated employees & requires employers to identify and eliminate unnecessary barriers that limit employment opportunities
2nd wave feminismlate 1960s & early 1970s - Raising consciousness about sexism and patriarchy, legalizing abortion/birth control, attaining equal rights in political/economic realms & gaining sexual “liberation.”
What was 2nd wave feminism limited by?Definition of woman excluding concerns of WOC, working-class, and lesbians & POV of outside of Europe or North America, can be used historically
2nd wave feminism was transformative, leading to which type of movements?Grassroots
What did 2nd wave feminism raise importence of?Consciousness
Main success of Second Wave?change in public attitudes and norms regarding domestic violence
Royal Commission on the Status of Women and the NACthreat of mobilizing large violent protests by two million women on Parliament hill to compel the governments to commit to a commission
3rd wave feminism1980s & 1990s - mid class women in 20s/30s concerned with 2nd wave focused on race & sexuality & feminism backlash
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms #15individual is equal before & under law & has right to equal protection & benefit of law without discrimination
Canada must submit a report to the United Nations every ___ years about how it has worked to further the rights of women4
Epistemologyorigin, nature, and limits of human knowledge. Nearly every great philosopher has contributed to the epistemological literature
IntersectionalityMany strands that make up identity - Analysis of inequality incorporating race, gender, ethnicity & class defining social outcomes - Group membership makes people vulnerable to bias
Stereotypingreduces people to a few, simple, essential characteristics, which are represented as fixed by nature
4 aspects of stereotyping"otherness" and exclusion cosntruction - stereotyping and power - role of fantasy - fetishism

Chapter 3

Question Answer
EssentialismNaturalizes differences between social groups
GBASystematically integrates gender perspective into policies, programs and legislation, planning and decision-making processes - Clarify the differences between women and men, boys and girls, and demonstrates how these differences affect health status, access
HegemonyDominant beliefs/ideals taken for granted & “naturalized” in a culture - Constructed & transmitted protecting status quo
Aperspectivity“objective” knowledge is through “the view from nowhere,” a view that transcends or abstracts from our particular locations
Detachmentknowers have an “objective” stance toward what is known when they are emotionally detached from it
Powercontrol people or things
PatriarchySystem including cultural ideas about men/women; web of relationships structuring social life & unequal reward distribution & resources underlying oppression
ColonialismPolicies where political power from 1 territory exerts control in a different territory ; unequal power relations
Sexismprivileges men over women through everday practices, attitudes, assumptions, behaviors, and institutional rules and structures
The Indian Act - Regulation of• identity • marriage • childbirth • sexual conduct • voting rights • band business • and ownership
Privilegesystematic access to valued cultural and institutional resources; denied to others based on social status membership

Chapter 4

Question Answer
Social LocationIdentity aspects: socio-economic status, race, religious affiliation, sexual orientation, ability - Lens of privillage is impacted
The OTHEROccupying marginal position or being & “object”; the opposite of a “subject,” or position of power - self requires an 'other' to establish own existence
RacismPrivileges people over others based on constructed racial classifications; social power - Oppresses others through everyday practices, attitudes, assumptions, behaviors, and institutional rules and structures
Feminism is not for everybody aboriginal claimsOppose male domination is universal - Valorizing maternalism and motherhood - individual dignity & right than equality - Equality is intepreted as reproducing eurocentric patriachial system - Reclaiming cultural traditions needed; not men equity - Inequality is not the only opression for Aboriginal Women
St. Denis's reflectionsWrong for feminism to be interpreted as women's desire to be treated as men - Feminist critique of patriarchy are relevant to aboriginal men & women: not escaped patriarchal social and political structures - AWomen suffer marginzation and opression in own communities
Meritocracysocial system or society where people have power because of their abilities, not because of their money or social position
RadicalizationConstrutive meaning, not true DNA fact - Racial categories are social constructions that change & attribute with status and mean
The Indian ActIntended to terminate the cultural, social, economic, and political distinctiveness of Aboriginal peoples by absorbing them into mainstream Canadian Life and values
'Aggressive assimilation' is also known as?Cultural genocide

Chapter 5

Question Answer
The 3 W'sWho decides, Who benefits, and Who is missing
Why should sex be not seen as a construct?Ignores the existence of people who do not fit neatly into the biological or social categories of women and men
What might be different if the binary male/female was no longer accepted?Power shift
Egg and the Sperm wording misinterpretation?stresses the fragility and dependency of the egg, even though the same text acknowledges elsewhere that the sperm also live for only a few hours
Egg and the Sperm ImplicationsFemale biological processes are less worthy than their male counterparts - Women are less worthy than men
What was the purpose of Martin's egg & sperm article?gender stereotypes hidden within the scientific language of biology - hoping to lose much of their power to harm us
What disorder did Patino have?Androgen insensitivity
Fausto-Sterling, Dueling Dualisms componentsSex is complex - Labeling man or women is a social decision - Doctors determine sex by reproductive capabilities
Who cited 'a society of normalization'Foucault
Who cited 'non-dualistic account of the body'Butler
What was Grosz's citationallows some biological processes a status that preexists their meaning
IntersexIndividuals medically labeled outside of “typical” sex categories - Atypical combinations of genitalia that do not fit the binary model
Intersex is based on ________ than a dichotomycontinuum
BinaryTwo opposite terms in which one may be subordinated to the other - Gender categories are constructed through power relations in sexes & identities/social divisions relations
Social ScriptsSexual behavior seems to follow a script; stage actors use to guide their behavior, social scripts instruct members of a society as to appropriate behavior and the meanings to attach to certain behaviors
SexSocially constructed categories culturally accepted by biological attributes - Females & males based on chromosomes, genitalia, reproductive organs & hormones
Sexual orientationself-ascribed description of sexual desires and practices; essential, unchanging orientation
Biological essentialismSocial groups (gender/racial) often positing their origins in biology (genes, chromosomes, DNA)
GenderSocially constructed roles and relationships, personality traits, attitudes, behaviours, values, relative power and inflence ascribes to 2 sexes - Divide bodies into binary system of women and men
Doing gender‘doing’ of gender is undertaken by women and men whose competence as members of society is hostage to its production - Masculine and feminine natures
HomophobiaPrejudice against all non-heterosexual identities and practices, usually displayed through violence or discrimination against lgbt
Social constructionMeaning-making practices including those that shape social statuses (i.e., rage, ethnicity, gender, sexuality, ability, religion, etc.) and produce inequality
3 strategies to become sensitized to own blind spots• Talking about positions in politics, what about representation for women • When you feel shocked hearing something different • Becoming self aware - educating yourself - catch yourself in judgement

Chapter 6

Question Answer
How can we address the complexity of addressing ‘difference’ without essentializing?Change the question • Consider the issues created by the system, not about the individual
According to bell hooks, when is the end of feminism?feminism to obtain its end, sexism, sexist exploitation, and oppression would have to be at an end
Representationhow we understand, think about, or make meanings about something or someone
How does representation work in wgst?explore ‘the ways the images and words give us information about gender and culture
Inscriptions?body is a site where power is inscribed; nexus for power relations - femininity, through various practices and institutions such as dieting, cosmetics, and fashion
Autonomyself-directing freedom and especially moral independence
Agencyperform an action hinges on the question of whether individuals can freely and autonomously initiate action
Agency “cannot come into being when females believe?their sexual bodies must always stand in the service of something else"
Heteronormativityinstitutionalizes heterosexuality as the standard for legitimate and expected social and sexual relations
Identitygender is a performance; it's what you do at particular times, rather than a universal who you are
SubjectivityConscious & unconscious thoughts & emotions of individual; sense of self - understanding her relation to the world
subjectivity is “a site of?disunity and conflict, central to the processes of political change and to preserving the status quo
2 spiritidentifies with both male and female gender roles, in a sense a third gender recognized in Indigenous culture
2 spirit is an example of a self-_____descriptor
2 spirit reflects a traditional aboriginal worldview asserting?all aspects of identity are interconnected and that a person’s experience of sexuality is inseparable from experiences of culture and community
Impact• Oppression hurts & can run deep without us recognizing it for what it is