allelipraise's version from 2017-06-21 11:42

Properties of Water

Question Answer
Water• Hydration • Hydrolysis • H-bonding
Properties of Water• Amphoteric • Can be a RA or OA

Mineral Waters

Question Answer
Alkaline WatersUsually contain appreciable quantities of NaSO4 and MgSO4, together with some NaHCO3
Carbonated WatersAre those which have been charged with carbon dioxide under pressure while in the earth.
Carbonated WatersContain Ca(HCO3)2 and Mg(HCO3)2.
Artificial carbonated watersCharging waters under pressure with CO2
Chalybeate WatersContain Fe in solution or suspension and are characterized by ferruginous taste.
Chalybeate WatersUpon exposure to the atmosphere, the iron is usually precipitated as hydroxide or oxide.
Chalybeate WatersSpring and well waters.
Lithia WatersContains Li2CO3 or LiCl
Saline WatersPurgative Waters
Saline WatersContains relatively large amounts of MgSO4 and Na2SO4 with NaCl.
Sulfur WatersContain H2S
Sulfur WatersDeposits sulfur upon exposure to atmosphere
Siliceous WaterContain very small quantities of soluble alkali silicates.

Hardness of Water

Question Answer
Temporary Hardness (bicarbonate hardness)Caused by Ca or Mg bicarbonates which can be removed by boiling or addition of hydroxides.
Permanent HardnessCaused by sulfates, chlorides, or hydroxides of Ca and/or Mg.
Permanent HardnessCannot be removed by boiling or addition of hydroxides.

Hardness of Water

Question Answer
Temporary Hard Water:Boilingreleases bicarbonates as carbon dioxide
Temporary Hard Water:Clark’s Lime ProcessAddition of slaked lime.
Temporary Hard Water:Addition of Soluble Alkali Carbonates or HydroxidesPrecipitates as carbonates
Permanent Hard Water:Deionized or Demineralized Water Ion-exchange resins

Official Waters

Question Answer
Water, USPClear, colorless, odorless liquid which has specifications for pH, Zn, other heavy metals, foreign volatile matter, total solid content, and bacteriological purity.
Water, USPOfficial as solvent and is used to make several official solutions, tinctures and extracts.
Purified Water• Water obtained by distillation or by ion exchanged treatment. • Clear, colorless, odorless liquid and is not intended for parenteral administration. • For USP test reagents • Must be labeled to indicate the method of preparation. • Water of choice for extemporaneous compounding.
Water for Injection• Water purified by distillation • Contains no added substance. • Must pass a pyrogen test. • Intended for use as a solvent for the preparation of parenteral solutions. • Finished preparation should be sterilized. • Stored at a temp below 4C or above 37C. • Used by large scale pharmaceuticals.
Bacteriostatic Water for Injection• Sterile water for injection containing one or more suitable antimicrobial agents. – Benzyl alcohol • Used in compatibility with antimicrobials • Stored in single-dose or in multiple-dose containers, not larger than 30-mL size. • For extemporaneous parenterals
Sterile Water for Injectionwater for injection sterilized and suitably packaged which contains no antimicrobial agent. • Most difficult to prepare. • May be stored in single-dose containers, not larger than 1000-mL size. • Used for extemporaneous compounding (IM and IV)