War and Peace

archiebw's version from 2016-05-26 14:30


Question Answer
What are the three main approaches to war?Just war theory, realism and pacifism.
Into which contemporary laws is Just War theory incorporated?The United Nations charter and the Geneva convention.
Which two ancient people defended war in self-defence?Aristotle and Cicero.
Who was the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity?Constantine the Great,
Who were two important people in the development of Just War theory, one being the student of the other?Ambrose of Milan and Augustine of Hippo.


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What was the first stipulation of Ambrose of Milan and Augustine of Hippo?Only a legitimate governmental authority can wage war.
What was the second stipulation of Ambrose of Milan and Augustine of Hippo?War should be intended to restore peace and justice.
What was the third stipulation of Ambrose of Milan and Augustine of Hippo?War should be a last resort.
What was the fourth stipulation of Ambrose of Milan and Augustine of Hippo?No reprisal killing, such as killing prisoners, or massacres.


Question Answer
On what two sources did St. Augustine base his theory?The Roman idea of 'justum bellum' and the Old Testament, where God commanded Israel's wars.
What were Thomas Aquinas's three most important aspects of war?Right authority, right cause and right intention.
What was Aquinas's position on war as a whole?It was inherently sinful.
Which two people added three additional aspects to Aquinas's theory of just war, and what were they?Francisco Suárez and Francisco de Vitoria, and proportionality, last resort and reasonable chance of success.
What are the three divisions of Just War theory?'Jus ad bellum', 'Jus in bello' and 'Jus post bellum.'


Question Answer
What is Augustine's definition of a just war, and who quotes it? (QUOTE)“One that avenges wrongs […] or to restore what has been seized unjustly,” and St. Thomas Aquinas.
Who said a just war is when a country tries to correct a violation of its rights?Francisco de Vitoria
Which two people said that war because of prevention of injustice was acceptable, allowing for the idea the facts must be certain, and what is a weakness of this?Hugo Grotius and Emerich de Vattel, and 'injustice' is vague.
What could one say that represents how complicated war is?The side who fired the first shot isn't necessarily the side in the wrong.


Question Answer
Why would the UN Security council disagree with Hugo Grotius and Emerich de Vattel?They forbid pre-emptive strikes unless clearly authorised.
From what ethical theory does the idea that the responsibility of state leaders extends beyond borders come?Natural Law.
What can a country providing humanitarian assistance be said to violate?The sovereignty of a state.
Why is humanitarian intervention not so simple?There is the question of how far it should go.
In what did John Stuart Mill believe, and what is a quotation of his encapsulating this?Self-determination and “the members of a political community must seek their own freedom”.
What did US Catholic Bishops have to say, in what work, and when? (QUOTE)“Every party should acknowledge the limits of its Just Cause and the consequent requirement to use only limited means in pursuit of its objectives,” ‘The Challenge of Peace, God’s Promise, and Our Response’ and 1983.


Question Answer
Who was one of the first to speak of legitimate authority, and what is it important to understand he had in mind?St. Augustine, and the Roman empire.
Name two groups of people in modern history who have challenged the right of government.Revolutionaries and anti-colonialists.
Name six reasons for going to war.To kill and rob, to seek glory, commercial interests, colonial expansion, self-defense and to protect people from genocide.
Who would have found barbaric wars acceptable in the same way we do self-defence?The vikings.
Of what did Augustine say just wars have the intention?Peace with the assistance of God.
To Augustine, why is self-defence on an individual basis wrong?It is a manifestation of self-love.
Who criticised the right intention principle, why, and who disagrees?Hugo Grotius, it is too subjective and we often do not know people's real intentions and the 1983 Catholic bishops.


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Who created the principle of likelihood of success, and when?Hugo Grotius, and the seventeenth century.
What is a weakness of the principle of likelihood of success?It is hard to define success.
To what principle is likelihood of success closely linked?Proportionality.
What is an example of a disproportionate war?One which is caused by a few drunk soldiers crossing a border.
What are two reasons why declaring war may lead to events getting out of control?National pride and general fervor.
What two things do the principles of likelihood of success and proportionality share?The idea of considering everyone's consequences, and the weakness of being hard to apply.


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Who said that time should pass between the demand of reparations and the initiation of hostility?Cicero.
Of what did Aquinas analogise war?A sanction for an injury.
Who explored what would nowadays be considered odd alternatives for war? Name two examples.Hugo Grotius, and drawing lots and individual combat.
Name an instance when peace was dangerous.Before the start of the Second World War.
What are two weaknesses of economic sanctions in place of war?They do not always work like in the case of Saddam Hussein, and it harms civilians who have nothing to do with the trouble.
What are the six criteria of 'jus ad bellum', and of what are they a mix?Just cause, legitimate authority, right intention, likelihood of success, proportionality and last resort, and deontological and teleological.


Question Answer
To when can we trace back 'jus in bello' and what is an example of an unwritten convention from then?Ancient Greece, and battles should only be fought in the summer.
What was Plato's input on 'jus in bello'?He said it was wrong to target non-combatants.
Today, who has the responsibility for 'jus in bello'?People in senior positions.


Question Answer
What is a case study for proportionality in regards to 'jus in bello', and who unfortunately died?The bombing of Dresden, and refugees fleeing the advance of the Soviet army.
What are two strengths of proportionality in regards to 'jus in bello'?It asks people to be impartial and foresee consequences.
What is a weakness of proportionality in regards to 'jus in bello'?Rational calculations are difficult.
Why are nuclear arms seen as disproportional?The effect of radioactive fallout.


Question Answer
What type of casualties has featured in every conflict in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, and to what can this be referred?Civilian, including child, casualties, and 'collateral damage.'
What is a quotation by US Catholic bishops from 1983 that relates to discrimination and non-combatant immunity?"The lives of innocent civilians may never be taken directly."
What happened in the Gulf War that relates to discrimination and non-combatant immunity?The Iraqi military placed command posts over schools so children would have be to killed to destroy them.
What two difficulties arise from speaking of 'non-combatants'?Many recent wars have been fought by non-uniformed soldiers, so it is difficult to discern who is a non-combatant, and soldiers often rely on help from civilians, which raises the question if the latter are guilty.
Who has a simplistic view regarding discrimination and non-combatant immunity, and what does he say?Hugo Grotius, and if State A is justly fighting State B all in State A are innocent and vice versa.
Who imagines people at time of a war in five different categories, what are they, and of what issues does he neglect?Robert Holmes, initiators of war, agents, contributors, people approving but not encouraging of war and people neither approving nor encouraging and conscription and child soldiers.
What is an issue relevant to discrimination and non-combatant immunity upon which a 2000 UN report touches?Proliferation of landmines.


Question Answer
What types of weapons were banned in 1139, and what type now?Crossbows and bows and arrows, and chemical and biological weapons.
What does the Geneva convention say about prisoners of war?Soldiers should be put in 'benevolent quarantine' until the war ends, when they should be exchanged for the country's own prisoners of war.
What does 'malum in se' mean?Evil in itself.
What are four examples of means that are 'malum in se'?Rape, genocide, forcing soldiers to fight against their own side and biological weapons.
Why, fundamentally, should there be no reprisals?This leads to escalation.
In what two ways might a country not respect the rights of its citizens 'jus in bello'?By conscripting them and censoring the press.
What are the six criteria of 'jus in bello'?Proportionality, discrimination and non-combatant immunity, obeying all international laws on weapons, fair treatment of prisoners of war, no means that are 'malum in se' and no reprisals.


Question Answer
What practice can be criticised by the application of proportionality to 'jus post bellum', and what does this mean?'Unconditional surrender', and when no guarantees are given to those surrendering.
What practice can be criticised by the application of discrimination to 'jus post bellum'?Economic sanctions for civilians.
What should be ensured to be a result of a peace treaty?An effect of improvement on the country in question.
How could a defeated country be likened to a drug addict?One needs to change it for the better and help it to see the new way is better than the old.
What is important to remember about 'jus post bellum', and which two countries testify to its success?It takes time, and Germany and Japan.
What are the six criteria of 'jus post bellum'?Proportionality, discrimination, rights vindication, punishment, compensation and rehabilitation.


Question Answer
Name four strengths of Just War Theory.Any of: it defines conditions, it combines wisdom of philosophers across many centuries, it recognises the necessity of action against an aggressor, it does not allow war in the interest of one nation, it invites us to consider the topical issue of weapons of mass destruction within a moral framework, and it is a largely universal theory.
Name four weaknesses of Just War Theory.Any of: It could be argued surely morality should always oppose deliberate violence, it is unrealistic as the powerful always win, it is too simplistic and ambiguous, weapons of mass destruction cannot be applied because they are too different, some terrorist take not notice of rules so there needs to be a different approach towards them and many wars are only considered to be just in hindsight.

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