VPH- Zoonoses Quiz Review 3

kelseyfmeyer's version from 2015-11-03 11:11


Question Answer
what is brucellosis caused by? say a little about itcaused by different brucella species. It is an intracellular pathogen. It is a BIOTERRORISM AGENT which puts it at a CDC category B
is brucella reportable? why or why not?YES-- it is zoonotic and has a bioterrorism CDC category of B. it is also ZOONOTIC so there are many eradication efforts.
what are the 5 brucella species we care about? why do we care about them? (2 we dont care about)ZOONOTIC!!!! Brucella melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis, B. canis, B. maris. (two we don't care about arent zonotic-- B. ovis and B netomae)
Brucella melitensis affects who? (ie primary reservoir)GOATS (humans) (and sheep)
B. abortus affects who? (ie primary reservoir)cattle mainly. (has a large host range so can affect cattle, dogs, horses, humans)
B. suis affects who? (ie primary reservoir)swine (humans)
B. canis affects who? (ie primary reservoir)dogs (humans)
B. maris affects who? (ie primary reservoir)marine mammals (humans)
(which brucella sp has worldwide distribution?)B. abortus
*which brucella sp has the highest pathogenecity to humans?Brucella melitensis (goat one)
what kinda zoonoses are brucella sp?DIRECT
most common routes of exposure to humans with B. abortus?raw dairy foods, animal husbandry, laboratory
most common routes of exposure to humans with B. melitensis?raw dairy foods, animal husbandry, laboratory
most common routes of exposure to humans with B. suis?pork slaughter, processing, feral pig hunting, laboratory
most common routes of exposure to humans with B. canis?dog breeding and whelping operations
what are reservoir hosts for B. abortus? what are the main problems it causes?Cattle, bison, elk -> abortion; orchitis
why is eradication of B. abortus difficult?there is a wildlife reservoir (bison) around the greater yellowstone area
in the US, what is the main way people are infected with B. abortus?direct contact with infected animals > occupational risk: Abattoir workers, farmers, vets. (In individuals returning to the US from other countries- due to consumption of raw milk/milk products)
is there a vx for brucella abortus?YES!! for CATTLE!! it is the RB51 vs, which is A modified live, rifampin-resistant mutant of the virulent B abortus strain 2308. ~65% effective in cattle under field conditions. Usually sufficient for herd immunity
what is RB51?this is a VX FOR B. ABORTUS FOR CATTLE
(how does B. suis present in pigs?)Tends to localize in bones and joints... Unlike other spp of Brucella, B suis infects the non-pregnant uterus, causing endometritis and infertility (not abortion)
which brucella sp does NOT cause abortion?S. suis...causes endometritis and infertility (repro tract is not main target in swine brucellosis, bones and joints are)
what part of the cow does B. abortus target?the PREGNANT uterus--> abortion
what is one of the problems/difficulties with the swine brucellosis control program?the control program targets the commercial swine industry, focuses on domestic swine, but FERAL SWINE are also carriers
what part of the body (of what animals) does B. melitensis target?small rumis (Goats, sheep, camels: Can also infect cattle). targets the REPRO TRACT.
is there a vx for B. melitensis?YES, but only in countries where endemic in goats and sheep
where in the body does B. canis target? what should you do?targets repro tract (causes abortion and orchitis). Can be pathogenic to humans but low risks to owners from dogs. NEUTER if dog is positive because repro tract is targeted
Which Brucella species can be primarily spread via AEROSOL? How/when is it aerosolized?B. abortus, B. melitensis primarily. It is shed in high #s at--- parturition, abortion (in Uterine fluids + placenta), Urine, feces, semen, and milk
what are the 4 main ways brucella can be spread?aerosol, oral, in utero, venereal
what are the main ways that brucella is spread orally? (2)(1) Infected placenta (cows lick placenta of other cows), fetal fluids... (2) Ingestion of milk
can brucella be spread in utero?yes! important in animal-to animal spread. Major reason for abotions (not B suis though, no abortion in B suis)
which brucella sp are likely to be spread venereally? which are NOT likely to be spread venereally?VENEREAL: B suis and B canis. (already know dogs is STD, and of course a PIG would get a DIRTY STD) NOT LIKELY in B. abortus and B melitensis. (these stay way up in the uterus)
how do humans relate to the maintainance cycle of brucella?dont-- they are accidental dead-end hosts.
what is the most common route of exposure of humans to brucella worldwide?ORALLY! ingestion of unpasteurized milk and milk products (meat not a known source of infxn)
what are the 5 routes of exposure of humans to brucella?ORAL, inhalation, skin, conjunctiva, (in utero/venereal--> very little evidence.....person to person very rare but usually in blood transfusions, bone marrow transplants)
explain how humans might be infected with brucella via skin?autoinoculation with vaccine strains
explain how humans might be infected with brucella via conjunctiva?Vaccines /infected tissue splash into the eye
humans usually infected with brucella via inhalation is an occupational risk
what's Bangs dz?cow disease-- caused by contageous abortion in cows (B. abortus). (BANG! dead cow fetus)
what's a weird, oral way that there is transmission of brucella from cow to cow?cows licking other cows placentas (bruce is gross and is into placenta-licking porn)
is there human to human transmission of brucella? (if so, how)NO, doesnt transmit from ppl to ppl bc ppl dont shed it
what is "undulent fever" and what should you know about it?DZ IN HUMANS caused by brucella. severity depends on brucella sp.
top three brucella sp which cause disease in humans (undulent fever) in order from most severe to least severe(MOST) B. meletensis, B. Suis, B. abortus. (LEAST) (MSA= MiGHTY SHITTY AFTEREFFECTS of BRUCE being a perv)
how does undulent fever/brucellosis present like in humans?Acute: Flu-like. Undulating Fever, joint pain, …In males, >orchitis and epididymitis +/- high fever. There can be a persistent infection in come people (chronic).
does brucella cause abortion in humans?no (bruce the bison is only into young cows, not humans)
what do you do if a vet accidentally self-innoculates with RB51?TX WITH ABX-- the vx is RIFAMPIN RESISTANT so you MUST treat with ****doxycycline**** for 3 weeks (3 weeks-- 3 looks like a B)
if there a brucellosis vx for humans?no
can you confirm brucella on abortion? can you confirm brucella on serology?CAN'T with just abortion (lots of things cause abortion), and Also, Positive serology must always be confirmed by culture (bc serology only confirms exposure not infection)
what does serology test for? what else do you do? (where do you take samples?)serology detects Abs=EXPOSURE. You must CULTURE.... organism can be recovered from stomach/lungs of fetus, other uterine discharges and milk of affected animals. If fetus unavailable, placenta can have bacteria in it
which brucellas are REPORTABLE?B. abortus, B. suis, B. melitenses (CANIS NOT REPORTABLE-- not common to be a zoonosis but can be)
Do you report if the animal gets the dz? humans?report if EITHER/BOTH gets it
Do you treat if brucellosis is discovered?NO TX if in cattle or small rumis or any food animal. Can treat if dog/horse
what abx do you use to tx?rifampin and doxycycline (you treat BR with DR)
what are the two wild populations which perpetuate brucella in the US and make eradication difficult?Western U.S.(greater yellowstone area) elk and bison (B. abortus). South eastern U.S. - feral swine (B. suis)
are there any states that are not class free? What must a state do to remain class free? (3)ALL states are class free. They can retain their class free status if... (1) Affected herds are maintained under quarantine (2) An individual herd plan, including a test-and remove schedule, is developed and implemented for each affected herd to prevent the spread of brucellosis (3) Appropriate surveillance is conducted to detect brucellosis in other herds or species
who formed the management plan, and what is the management plan for preventing brucellosis in wild herds in the greater yellowstone area from infecting domestic herds?APHIS and state agencies. Mainly the method is to KEEP GYA ELK AND BISON SEPARATE FROM DOMESTIC CATTLE! They uses fences and hazing when brucella tranmission risk is the highest (jan-june) and vaccinate elk and bison. Also allow native americans to shoot migrating bison (native rights)
what is the vx for GYA elk? Bison?ELK= strain 19. BISON=RB51***note: this is abortogenic is adults
CONTROL: what are the components of the cooperative state and federal brucellosis eradication program for domestic cattle and bison? (3 things-- what isn't part of the program?)TREATMENT IS NOT PART OF THE PROGRAM!! (1) vx with RB51 (2) test and slaughter (3) Hygiene and Management practices. .....CONTROL PROGRAM IS NOT FOR GYA WILD BISON
why is RB51 vx preferred over Strain 19 vx?you can differentiate an animal which has been vaccinated from an animal which has been exposed if you use the RB51 strain-- this is because RB51 doesn't cause Abs to be formed, but an exposure WOULD produce Abs. ALSO, RB51 is less virulent and less abortiogenic and just as protective
**aside from seek treatment, what must you do if you accidnetally innoculate yourself or someone else with RB51?NOTIFY CDC if autoinoculate yourself or inoculate someone else as CDC keeps a registry of all human exposures, and must be notified (CDC because you are a people)
why do we use strain 19 in elk?MORE EFFECTIVE than RB51 in ELK
WHO is vaccinated, and what are the reasons why?FEMALE calves which are between 4-12 months old. Less than 4 months maternal Abs will be a problem. If greater than 1 year an intact female heifer can become preg. and abort, and if theyre preg they can become permanantly infected. (gross, bruce is only into super young females)
what are 2 problems with the vx?(1) Vaccine can cause disease in humans & cattle/bison (2) Vaccination is not 100-percent effective in preventing brucellosis
(control) vx should be used in conjunction with what, and why?with the SLAUGHTER POLICY, because vx can still cause dz and is not 100% effective
Who is TESTED for the eradication program? who isnt?The organism targets the reproductive tract HENCE ONLY adult INTACT male and females that are at risk of exposure ARE TESTED being a threat to the eradication program. Young heifers are vaccinated but NOT TESTED
Slaughter surveillance will continue to be the main surveillance stream used in the new plan and consist of the collection of blood samples from ____ cattle / bison ___ (age) or older using approved diagnostic testsINTACT, 2 years of age
what are the 2 primary Surveillance procedures used to ID exposure?(1) Milk from dairy herds: tested for antibodies to Brucella. 2-4 times a year. (2) Serum: Market cattle testing (MCI)- cattle at market & at all state & federally inspected abattoirs of intact bulls & cows >2 years old
once a heifer is vx, what do you do?orange R ear tag
what are reactors? what happens if the animal (cattle/goat) is a reactor?Reactor=Animals testing positive on USDA approved serologic tests. They are Are tagged; branded & sent to slaughter (IF HEALTHY)--> They can only go directly to approved quarantine feedlots and/or directly to designated slaughter facilities. NOTE: Reactor goats cannot be slaughtered in the U.S. due to high human health risk with B. melitensis
if the reactors are sent to slaughter, what kinda precautions are taken?designated slaughter facility, in bulls the testicles are condemned, udders of females condemned. NOTE: Unlike TB reactors, brucellosis reactor cattle are not subjected to special postmortem exam at slaughter
what are "trace backs" and what happens?trace back the origin of the reactor cow, to ID exposed herds, then herd can be quarantined and tested. Reactors sent to slaughter and herd retested until no reactors are identified. Quarantine is lifted after entire herd test negative on two tests 180 days apart.
what is the # 1 cause of loss of accreditation of U.S. vets??Not following the rules of the Brucellosis Eradication Program
why don't we treat brucella positive cows/goats?No role for treatment in an eradication program. There is a high failure rate with treatment and long term TX required. Also concern with antibiotic residues in meat and milk
Bruce the buffalo loves to visit...yellowstone park (BRUCELLA=/=TB even though both have cattle/bison reservoirs-- TB is that there are TB hospitals in MEXICO where my DEER friend is, drinking dairy)