VPH- Zoonoses Quiz Review 1

kelseyfmeyer's version from 2015-11-03 11:09

Zoonoses stuff

Question Answer
**What is the definition of zoonoses?These are diseases caused by infectious agents naturally transmitted from vertebrate animal (non- human) reservoirs to humans. The vertebrate animal (non human) acts as the main reservoir, and the agents are maintained in “reservoir hosts” (animal, soil). Reservoir hosts are often asymptomatic. The WHO defines it as Disease and infection naturally transmitted between vertebrate animal reservoirs and man
**reportable vs notifiable?reportable: state. notifiable: federal (Notifiable, Now you go to the big guys)
**what is a reservoir?Where the agent is maintained in nature, lives and multiplies. Could be animal, human, plant, arthropod, soil…
**what is a source?Site from which infectious agent is passed to host.
**How do we classify Zoonoses? (three main ways)By Agent, By Vertebrate Animal Reservoir host, and By Maintenance cycle in Nature (direct, cyclozoonosis, metazoonosis, saprozoonosis)
** how many hosts are needed for Direct Zoonoses?One vertebrate host required to maintain agent
** how many hosts are needed for Cyclozoonoses?Two vertebrate hosts required to maintain agent
** what is required for maintenance of agent with a Metazoonoses?Biological vector reqd. for maintenance of agent
** what is required for maintenance of agent with a Saprozoonoses?Environmental stage/reservoir ( soil) reqd for maintenance of agent
** what is a direct zoonoses?Infectious agent transmitted from an infected vertebrate host to a susceptible vertebrate host by direct or indirect contact
**Direct zoonoses--> Occurrence sustained (maintained) by ____ (how many?) vertebrate speciesone
**what makes sthing a Cyclo-Zoonoses?2 vertebrate hosts required to maintain the organism Humans may be 1 of these hosts (vicious cyclo between two things)
which agency do you report to if there is a reportable/notifiable ANIMAL dz?USDA-APHIS
which agency do you report to if there is a reportable/notifiable HUMAN dz?CDC
who designates certain conditions as nationally notifiable?CDC & the Council of State &Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE)
what is a Meta-Zoonoses?requires both a Vertebrate reservoir host (non-human), and An Invertebrate biological vector in which the agent multiplies and or develops (mosquito, tick) (bugs are only meta-animals)
what are three arboviruses, and what kinda zoonoses do these have?(metazoonoses) West Nile virus,Western Equine Encephalomyelitis [WEE], Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis [VEE]
what is the main example for a direct zoonoses?M. bovis
main example for a cyclozoonoses?taeniasis-cystercercus
what are 5 bacterial agents which are meta-zoonoses?Lyme borreliosis, Plague, Q fever(Q fever is a metazoonoses with the sylvatic cycle between ticks/small mammals-- it can also be a direct zoonoses by 1 vertebrate host independent of vector), rickettsia rickettsii (RMSF), ehrlichia
**what are the 6 things that have vx, and WHO is the vx for?(1) Lyme for dogs (2) Q-fever for ppl (high risk vx) (3) chlamydophila abortus in sheep/goat (4) chlamydophila felis in cats (5) cysticercosis in pigs (6) Brucella for cattle
**what is a Sapro-zoonoses (the two requirements)The Environment is a true reservoir of infection/reqd for an essential phase of development for the infectious agent (such as embryonation of eggs needing to take place in enviro), AND Vertebrate non-human reservoir host
what are two examples of sapro-zoonoses?(1) Toxocara canis ;T. cati: cause of visceral larval migrans in humans (2) Baylisascaris Procyonis
what is species jumping, and how does it relate to zoonoses?SJing is Where the organism originates & is maintained in one spp. & then jumps into another species & is maintained there... it is NOT ZOONOTIC if maintained in humans and there is sustained human-human xmission -Eg: HIV
what are some fungal/parasitic agents which are not zoonotic infections, but are rather "shared infections"?Histoplasma capsulatum doesnt need a vert. animal in lifecycle but can infect humans and animals. Coccidioides immitis has an enviro. reservoir, dont need vert. reservoir, but enviro stages can infect humans and animals if inhaled. Sporothrix schenkii- Environmental reservoir,does not require a vertebrate animal host but can infect cats which then act as a source of infection to humans
role of USDA-APHIS? “protecting and promoting U.S. agricultural health, administering the Animal Welfare Act and carrying out wildlife damage management activities.” also deals with Agricultural animal/plant health threats, Agricultural bioterrorism, Wildlife conflicts and diseases, Zoonotic diseases, animal welfare
what does National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians (NASPHV) do?helps direct and develop uniform public health procedures involving zoonotic disease in the United States and its territories.
what does the CDC do?leading national public health institute of the United States.Its main goal is to protect public health and safety through the control and prevention of disease, injury, and disability.
what are 4 feral swine diseases which are zoonotic? (not sure if need to know)brucellosis, toxoplasma, tularemia, trichinellosis
what is RB51?VX FOR BRUCELLA (RB <--> BRucella)
**who should you report potetally zoonotic dzs to?APHIS
abortion in a goat- which are zoonotic and ddx for abortion?brucella (melatensis), chlamylidophla abortus, coxiella burnetti, listeria, toxo
what are 4 examples of organisms which are hazardous in a lab setting and lab personal should be informed?Coxiella burnetii -require BL-3, Chlamydophila psittaci, franciella tulerensis, rabies (low risk but super dangerous so we're careful)
which agent has two different types of zoonoses?Q FEVER-- metazoonoses in sylvatic cycle (lagomorphs, rodents, and ticks) or direct zoonoses (Q is a man who can swing both ways)
**********Zoonotic abortifacients in sheep/goats (6)(1) Coxiella burnetii (2) Chlamydophila abortus (3) Toxoplasma gondii (4) Campylobacter jejuni?? (5) B. melitensis ; B.abortus (6) Listeria
RMSF is what kinda organism?rickettsial bact
lyme is what kinda organism?spirochete bact
what's the arboviral zoonoses?WNV
what's the leading vevctor bourne zoonoses?lyme
what is the role of the vet with zoonotic dz?in reporting diseases to the relevant local and State public health/animal health agencies and treating animals. As a veterinarian you have a responsibility to educate clients, staff and laboratory workers on zoonotic risks from animals but it is NEVER your responsibility to TREAT PEOPLE!
what do ppl usually get from raw milk?bovine TB, brucella, q fever
what do ppl usually get from being around parturition?COXIELLA BURNETTI (Q FEVER)- Q is QUICK to the scene for a birth (also B abortus and B meletensis specifically, and C. abortus)
abortions in humans?C burnetti, C. psittaci, C. abortus (NOT BRUCELLA!--be careful tho)
people with heart problems should avoid what dz especially?Q fever! (Q will stick is cox right in your heart through the valves)
make a spore to be super resistant in enviro?Q fever (Q has cox of steel, it can survive any environment)

Bovine tuberculosis

Question Answer
what kind of zoonosis is bovine tuberculosis?direct zoonosis
**what is the agent that causes bovine tuberculosis?Mycobacterium bovis
**how many vertebrate hosts are required to maintain M. bovis?1
**what are the Reservoir hosts for M. bovis?cattle or bison only
**how is M. bovis shed?Cattle shed M. bovis in respiratory secretions, feces, milk and occasionally in the urine, vaginal secretions or semen
**how is M. bovis transmitted?Aerosol-Most common>bovine spp. in close contact. Can also occur with Ingestion in raw milk/products in milk; calves nursing from infected cows. Common route of transmission to other spp.. Cutaneous, genital, and congenital infections rarely occur
**how does Bovine-Human Transmission usually occur with M. bovis?Ingestion of raw milk/ products=most common method. Inhalation: close contact with infected cattle / carcasses or if share a common airspace with cattle. (**NOTE: rarely reinfection of bovines from humans via airborne route). (Rare and unproven: Raw or undercooked meat)
**how can humans cause transmission of M. bovis to other humans?The Bacille Calmette Guerin [BCG] vaccine Attenuated (live) strain of M. bovis used to protect humans against M. tuberculosis, as well as stimulate the immune system of cancer pts. IF THERE IS a person infected with HIV who skin tests POSITIVE for M. TB, >prophylactic treatment NOT VACCINATED. (Asymptomatic persons with HIV (do not yet have AIDS) may be given BCG vaccine if they skin test negative.). Because of this, BCG contraindicated in persons with Disease (AIDS) as can become infected with M.bovis.. Use of vaccine should be in HIV+(asymptomatic for AIDS).
**what is primary testing you do on cattle for M. Bovis?Skin testing with the caudal fold (tuberculin skin test) for exposure not disease prior to sale or movement. (Tuberculin is injected intradermally; a positive test is indicated by a delayed hypersensitivity reaction (swelling) and suggests exposure has occurred)
**what is post-mortem testing you do on cattle for M. bovis?Test for disease not exposure! ID lesions at slaughter, then Culture & PCR (*this is required by the CDC with BSL (biosafety level) 2 bc humans can be infected by aerosol while doing necropsy), histopath is not definitive on its own. Diagnosis usually made from combination of test results
**what is the federal control program for M. bovis?ERADICATION!
**is there a vx for cattle for M. bovis?no
**can you treat cattle for M bovis?NO! Three reasons why we dont: Req.Long-term A/microbial TX=costly; concern > residues. Potential for multidrug resistance makes TX controversial. AND there is Risk of shedding to other animals/humans during treatment
**is M. bovis notifiable or reportable?BOTH. must report to Local and State health and Animal health offices, and State authorities, and federal authorities
**US Federal State Eradication program---> M. Bovis. What 4 situations call for cattle to be tested for M. Bovis?(1) Interstate sale or movement (2) Routinely to determine State accreditation status (3) Slaughter surveillance (4) Dairy herds twice yearly
**M bovis--> Spp. of importance in the US?cattle, bison, captive and freeranging cervids (deer, elk etc), goats, camelids
**when is a M. Bovis screening test usually performed?when animals moved interstate or internationally
**what are the two tests you use to test for M. bovis, and briefly explain when each is used(1) Caudal fold test (CFT)-initial screening test [accredited vet must perform this] (2) Comparative cervical test (CCT)- more specific, test on any animal positive on the initial skin test.
explain how the caudal fold test (skin test) is performed, how it's read, and what it tells youinject sm amt of purified protein derivative[PPD] of Mycobacterial origin intradermally in the skin of the caudal fold at base of the tail. 72 hours later, the person who injected reads the result. A swollen area is a positive test- these are called "responders". A positive test only tells you if there was EXPOSURE (not dz) to ANY of the mycobacterial agents. It doesn't necessarily mean dz (or even exposure) to M. Bovis- common causes of false positives are M. avium subsp paraTB: Johne’s disease, M. avium (Avian TB), or Atypical mycobacteria
if the cattle tests positive on the caudal fold test, what do you do? what happens after this?call state or APHIS vet immediately- more testing will have to be done before 10 days or after 60 days after the 72 hr reading (why? bc from day 10-60, the caudal fold test will suppress reactivity of skin in the comparative cervical test and they might be catergorized as non-infected. after 60days this suppression goes away) . Then, Fed/State vets conduct the more specific Comparative Cervical test (CCT) on any animal positive on the initial skin test.
when is the Comparative Cervical test (CCT) done for M. bovis? How do you do it? what does it tell you?done to test the positives found with the caudal fold test. Will ID WHICH mycobacteria they were infected with/exposed to. Intradermal injection of tuberculin, aka purified protein derivative[PPD], of M. avian/ M. bovis at separate sites on mid cervical area--> compare response of two areas 72 hrs post-injection. If they are positive for M. bovis on the CCT (caudal cerivical test) they are "reactors" and this suggests the animal has been exposed, might not necessarily have dz tho.
test "responder" vs test "reactor"?responder= postitive in the caudal fold test. reactor= positive in the comparative cervical test.
Depending on the situation and the State, True “reactors” will lead to...? (2)QUARANTINE OF THE ENTIRE HEAD, followed by: (1) Removed from the herd (sent to slaughter if healthy, or otherwise destroyed) and examined for PM lesions followed by more testing of the herd. Herds and other exposed animals will be tested until negative results are obtained TWICE on all members of the herd. (2) Depopulation of the entire herd may be depopulated by sending ALL healthy animals to slaughter or otherwise destroying all animals. (Remember: Food safety notes for TB reactors)
what is a Gamma interferon test, and when/why would you use it?(accredited/regulatory vets only) a blood test for cattle which Measures gamma interferon production in response to mycobacterial antigens, which can differentiate M. bovis and M. avium. Done 3–30 days post-CFT. Used instead of CCT on CFT responders as minimises handling for repeat exam 72hrs post CCT
**what are three major challenges to M. bovis Eradication in the US?(1) Sporadic but persistent detection of TB in dairy industry, southwestern US notably California (2) Endemic in Michigan (free-ranging white-tailed deer) (3) Mexican origin cattle ((they move w/o restriction after entering US, before entering the mexican TB tests generally have low rates of response, and there is no federal requirement to test after entry into the US)
Is there a vx for humans?vx against M. TB by using the M. bovis strain
Is there a vx for cattle?no

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