VPH - Quiz 2-5

drraythe's version from 2016-04-21 16:42

Zoonotic Chlamydial Species continued

Question Answer
Can C. psittaci cz abortion in ppl?Yes, occasionally
(What would be 2 Ddx for C. psittaci?)Q-Fever, Tularemia
How do you Dx C. psittaci in a bird?DIFFICULT TO DX, but consider in any recently purchased bird w/ lethargic + nonspecific illness. For Ante/Post mortem dx, often best to use a COMBINATION of tests, Serology + Antigen detection best. Not Culture [biohazard]. **must collect sample properly
What kinda serology result might indicate a C. psittaci infxn?4 fold or more in in serologic titer in 2 samples obtained 2 wks apart. Use Indirect Fluorescent antibody [IFA] or complement fixation [CF]
How can you test for antigen of C. psittaci?ELISA & PCR or Direct Fluorescent Abs [FA]
Where do you want to take a sample from for C. psittaci if you are going to run an ELISA?Want choanal (nasal) or cloacal swabs. If ante-mortem, choanal is better
What are the flaws of doing serology to dx C. psittaci?Need a rising titer to confirm, Can’t rule out if negative (too early infxn to detect Abs)
What are the flaws of doing ELISA to dx C. psittaci?Need choanal & cloacal swabs live bird. However, birds often only intermittently shed. So you can't rule it out. Best if positive result & CS
How do you treat C. psittaci in birds? Humans? What should you know that the Tx does?TETRACYCLINE for both. Note that ABx Tx can suppress the Abs response in both humans & birds
Is there a Vx for birds for C psittaci?NO
What are 3 major reasons it's basically impossible to ERADICATE C. PSITTACI?(1) Large number of hosts, including free-ranging fowl
(2) Immunity incomplete & short-lived in birds & mammals. No effective Vx for control in birds
(3) Infxn in birds subclinical & shedding intermittent. Shedding greatest in young birds & precipitated by stress
What kinda PPE should you use when you might encounter C. psittaci?N95 respirators, protective clothing…gloves, goggles
What are the implemented infxn controls for C. psittaci?(1) Isolation/quarantine
(2) [PPE] for you, personnel; N95 respirators, protective clothing…gloves, goggles
(3) At PM, wet carcass w/ detergent+H20 to prevent aerosolization
(4) Clean cages, floors: EPA approved disinfectants
What should pet stores be doing to help reduce C. psittaci for themselves?(1) Maintain records of all bird sales, source of birds, cases
(2) Advise purchase from breeder that screens/ or you conduct screen on the bird
(3) Husbandry - Design ventilation systems, disinfect cages
Control of Avian Chlamydiosis (AC) in birds → what is the control method which has given the BEST results? (2 things)(1) Quarantine
(2) Chemoprophylaxis w/ Tetracycline
Importation of birds into the U.S. is regulated by?USDA-APHIS
Why is there a 30 day quarantine of imported birds?NOT BC OF C. PSITTACI!! (Its for exotic Newcastle & such) bc C. psittaci is already endemic to the US & 30d insufficient to eliminate C. psittaci infxn you need 45d
What happens w/ birds in the 30 day quarantine during importation? (What are they Tx w/, what is the rationale behind this, what does Tx do?)Birds are Tx w/ Chlortetracycline [CTC] (Chlamydia, Chlortetracycline) in their food during the 30 day quarantine (the 30 day quarantine is not for C psittaci tho), but the Tx is just to reduce Chlamydial exposure to quarantine station employees who come into contact w/ imported psittacines! This will prevent shedding of the bacteria, but will not eliminate the infxn
How long should Tx be to eliminate infxn in birds (C. psittaci)45 day Tx (Chlortetracycline) → so Importers advised to continue Tx for an additional 15 days after birds are released (since quarantine is only 30 days)
Why do current importation regulations do not prevent C. psittaci-infected birds from entering the U.S.? (4 things)(1) Tx period w/ CTC not long enough
(2) Birds may not ingest enough medicated feed/water
(3) Stress of quarantine may lead to ↑ shedding resulting in more birds being infected
(4) No control measure reqd after bird leaves quarantine
What is usually the 1st thing you're going to see if there is C. psittaci in an area?Usually illness seen in the HUMAN before in the bird (birds asymptomatic usually)
Chlamydophila abortus is the agent for what? In who?Sheep/goats (cows) - Agent of Enzootic ovine abortion
Can C. abortus cz abortion in HUMANS?Yes
**********Zoonotic abortifacients in sheep/goats (6)(1) Coxiella burnetii
(2) Chlamydophila abortus
(3) Toxoplasma gondii
(4) Campylobacter jejuni
(5) B. melitensis; B. abortus
(6) Listeria

(Coxi's List includes Chlammering To Camp Melbort)
How is Chlamydophila abortus xmitted to humans?Aerosol (inhalation), In-utero xmission to fetus
How does a human infected w/ Chlamydophila abortus present?Abortion +/- flu-like dz
How do sheep/goats present when they are infected w/ C. abortus?Sheep/goats usually only abort after initial infxn & rarely abort a 2nd time
Is there a C. abortus Vx for animals? Ppl?Inactivated Vxs [Canada/EU] available for sheep/goats (not humans)
What does the Vx for C. abortus do? (For who?)FOR ANIMALS! May reduce abortions & neonatal mortality but do not prevent or eliminate infxn from the flock
What precautions should people take against C. abortus?Pregnant women should avoid being around sheep & goats during lambing & kidding
Chlamydophila felis → affects who? How does this dz present in humans?A cat dz. Humans, ESP CHILDREN, get conjunctivitis
Are there Vx of C. felis for animals? Humans?Vx for animals, not for humans
Vx for C. felis is for who & what does the Vx do?CATS, Vxs can markedly reduce the severity of CS but do not prevent infxn or shedding