VPH - Quiz 2-1

drraythe's version from 2016-04-06 03:23

Zoonoses stuff

Question Answer
**What is the definition of Zoonoses?These are dzs czd by infectious agents naturally xmitted from vertebrate animal (non-human) reservoirs to humans. The vertebrate animal (non-human) acts as the main reservoir & the agents are maintained in “reservoir hosts” (animal, soil). Reservoir hosts are often asymptomatic. The WHO defines it as dz & infxn naturally xmitted btwn vertebrate animal reservoirs & man
**Reportable vs Notifiable?Reportable: State
Notifiable: Federal
(Notifiable, Now you go to the big guys)
**What is a reservoir?Where the agent is maintained in nature, lives & multiplies. Could be animal, human, plant, arthropod, soil…
**What is a source?Site from which infectious agent is passed to host
**How do we classify Zoonoses? (3 main ways)By Agent
By Vertebrate Animal Reservoir Host
By Maintenance Cycle in Nature (direct, cyclozoonosis, metazoonosis, saprozoonosis)
**How many hosts are needed for Direct Zoonoses?1 vertebrate host reqd to maintain agent
**How many hosts are needed for Cyclozoonoses?2 vertebrate hosts reqd to maintain agent
**What is reqd for maintenance of agent w/ a Metazoonoses?Biological vector reqd. for maintenance of agent
**What is reqd for maintenance of agent w/ a Saprozoonoses?Environmental stage/reservoir (soil) reqd for maintenance of agent
**What is a direct zoonoses?Infectious agent xmitted from an infected vertebrate host to a susceptible vertebrate host by direct or indirect contact
**Direct zoonoses → Occurrence sustained (maintained) by ____ (how many?) vertebrate species1
**What makes something a Cyclo-Zoonoses?2 vertebrate hosts reqd to maintain the organism Humans may be 1 of these hosts (vicious cyclo btwn 2 things)
ex: Taeniasis - Cystercercus
Which agency do you report to if there is a reportable/notifiable ANIMAL dz?USDA-APHIS
Which agency do you report to if there is a reportable/notifiable HUMAN dz?CDC
Who designates certain conditions as nationally notifiable?CDC & the Council of State &Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE)
What is a Meta-Zoonoses?Requires both a vertebrate reservoir host (non-human) & an invertebrate biological vector in which the agent multiplies & or develops (mosquito, tick) (bugs are only meta-animals)
What are 3 Arboviruses & what kinda zoonoses do these have?(Metazoonoses)
West Nile Virus (WVN)
Western Equine Encephalomyelitis [WEE]
Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis [VEE]
What is the main example for a direct zoonoses?M. bovis
Main example for a cyclozoonoses?Taeniasis - Cystercercus
What are 5 bacterial agents which are meta-zoonoses?Lyme borreliosis
Q-Fever (Q-Fever is a metazoonoses w/ the sylvatic cycle btwn ticks/small mammals - it can also be a direct zoonoses by 1 vertebrate host independent of vector)
Rickettsia rickettsii (RMSF)
**What are the 6 things that have Vx & WHO is the Vx for?(1) Lyme for dogs
(2) Q-Fever for ppl (high risk Vx)
(3) Chlamydophila abortus in sheep/goat
(4) Chlamydophila felis in cats
(5) Cysticercosis in pigs
(6) Brucella for cattle
(I get a lot of Questions From People, when I'm Lyming with my Dog, about Chlamy-Sheep Abortions, Chlamy Cats and why my Cyster is into Pig's when Bruce is into Cows)
**What is a Sapro-zoonoses (the 2 requirements)The environment is a true reservoir of infxn/reqd for an essential phase of development for the infectious agent (such as embryonation of eggs needing to take place in enviro) & vertebrate non-human reservoir host
**What are 2 examples of sapro-zoonoses?(1) Toxocara canis; T. cati: cz of visceral larval migrans in humans
(2) Baylisascaris procyonis
What is species jumping & how does it relate to zoonoses?Species jumping is where the organism originates & is maintained in 1 spp. & then jumps into another species & is maintained there... it is NOT ZOONOTIC if maintained in humans & there is sustained human-human xmission - Ie: HIV
What are 3 fungal/parasitic agents which are not zoonotic infxns, but are rather "shared infxns"?Histoplasma capsulatum - Doesnt need a vert animal in lifecycle but can infect humans & animals
Coccidioides immitis - Enviro reservoir, dont need vert reservoir, but enviro stages can infect humans & animals if inhaled
Sporothrix schenkii - Environmental reservoir, does not require a vert animal host but can infect cats which then act as a source of infxn to humans
Role of USDA-APHIS?“Protecting & promoting U.S. agricultural health, administering the Animal Welfare Act & carrying out wildlife damage management activities.”
Oversees dealings w/:
Agricultural animal/plant health threats
Agricultural bioterrorism
Wildlife conflicts & dzs
Zoonotic dzs
Animal welfare
What does National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians (NASPHV) do?Helps direct & develop uniform public health procedures involving zoonotic dz in the United States & its territories
What does the CDC do?Leading national public health institute of the United States. Its main goal is to protect public health & safety through the control & prevention of dz, injury & disability
What are 4 feral swine dzs which are zoonotic? (Not sure if need to know)Brucellosis
What is RB51?VX FOR BRUCELLA (RB = BRucella)
**Who should you report potentially zoonotic dzs to?APHIS
Abortion in a goat - which are zoonotic & Ddx for abortion?Brucella (melatensis)
Chlamylidophla abortus
Coxiella burnetti (Q Fever)
(Goats love BLTs, C Q?)
What are 4 examples of organisms which are hazardous in a lab setting & lab personal should be informed?Coxiella burnetii - requires BSL-3
Chlamydophila psittaci
Francisella tulerensis
Rabies (low risk but super dangerous so we're careful)
Which agent has 2 different types of zoonoses?Q-FEVER - metazoonoses in sylvatic cycle (lagomorphs, rodents & ticks) or direct zoonoses (Q is a man who can swing both ways)
**********Zoonotic abortifacients in sheep/goats (6)(1) Coxiella burnetii
(2) Chlamydophila abortus
(3) Toxoplasma gondii
(4) Campylobacter jejuni
(5) B. melitensis; B. abortus
(6) Listeria

(Coxi's List included Chlammering To Camp at Mel-bort)
RMSF is what kinda organism?Rickettsial bact
Lyme is what kinda organism?Spirochete bact
What’s the arboviral zoonoses?WNV
What’s the leading vector bourne zoonoses?Lyme
What is the role of the vet w/ zoonotic dz?In reporting dzs to the relevant local & state public health/animal health agencies & treating animals. As a veterinarian you have a responsibility to educate clients, staff & laboratory workers on zoonotic risks from animals but it is NEVER your responsibility to TREAT PEOPLE!
What do ppl usually get from raw milk? (3)Bovine TB
What do ppl usually get from being around parturition?COXIELLA BURNETTI (Q-FEVER) - Q is QUICK to the scene for a birth (also B. abortus & B. meletensis specifically & C. abortus)
Abortions in humans?C. burnetti (Q Fever!)
C. psittaci
C. abortus
(NOT BRUCELLA! - be careful tho)
People w/ heart problems should avoid what dz especially?Q-Fever! (Q will stick is cox right in your heart through the valves)
Makes a spore to be super resistant in enviro?Q-Fever (Q has cox of steel, it can survive any environment)

Bovine tuberculosis

Question Answer
What kind of zoonosis is Bovine tuberculosis?Direct zoonosis
**What is the agent that czs Bovine tuberculosis?Mycobacterium bovis
**How many vertebrate hosts are reqd to maintain M. bovis?1
**What are the Reservoir hosts for M. bovis?Cattle or bison only
**How is M. bovis shed?Cattle shed M. bovis in:
Respiratory secretions
Occasionally in the urine, vaginal secretions or semen
**How is M. bovis xmitted?Aerosol = Most common, bovine spp. in close contact
Can also occur w/ Ingestion in raw milk/products in milk; calves nursing from infected cows. Common route of xmission to other spp.. Cutaneous, genital & congenital infxns rarely occur
**How does Bovine-Human Xmission usually occur w/ M. bovis?Ingestion of raw milk/ products=most common method. Inhalation: close contact w/ infected cattle / carcasses or if share a common airspace w/ cattle. (**NOTE: rarely reinfxn of bovines from humans via airborne route). (Rare & unproven: Raw or undercooked meat)
**How can humans cz xmission of M. bovis to other humans?The Bacille Calmette Guerin [BCG] Vx Attenuated (live) strain of M. bovis used to protect humans against M. tuberculosis, as well as stimulate the immune system of cancer PTxs. IF THERE IS a person infected w/ HIV who skin tests POSITIVE for M. TB then prophylactic Tx NOT VXD. (Asymptomatic persons w/ HIV (do not yet have AIDS) may be given BCG Vx if they skin test negative.) Bc of this, BCG contraindicated in persons w/ dz (AIDS) as can become infected w/ M. bovis.. Use of Vx should be in HIV+(asymptomatic for AIDS)
**What is 1° testing you do on cattle for M. Bovis?Skin testing w/ the caudal fold (tuberculin skin test) for exposure not dz prior to sale or movement. (Tuberculin is injected intradermally; a positive test is indicated by a delayed hypersensitivity rxn (swelling) & suggests exposure has occurred)
**What is post-mortem testing you do on cattle for M. bovis?Test for dz not exposure! ID lesions at slaughter, then culture & PCR (*this is reqd by the CDC w/ BSL2 (Biosafety Level-2) bc humans can be infected by aerosol while doing necropsy), Histopath is not definitive on its own. Dx usually made from combination of test results
**What is the federal control program for M. bovis?ERADICATION!
**Is there a Vx for cattle for M. bovis?No
**Can you treat cattle for M bovis?NO!
3 reasons why we dont:
Req. Long-term Antimicrobial Tx = costly & concern about drug residues
Potential for multidrug resistance makes Tx controversial
Risk of shedding to other animals/humans during Tx
**Is M. bovis notifiable or reportable?BOTH. Must report to Local & State health, Animal health offices & State authorities & Federal authorities
**US Federal State Eradication program → M. Bovis. What 4 situations call for cattle to be tested for M. Bovis?(1) Interstate sale or movement
(2) Routinely to determine State accreditation status
(3) Slaughter surveillance
(4) Dairy herds 2x yearly
**M bovis → Spp. of importance in the US?Cattle
Captive & free ranging cervids (deer, elk etc)
**When is a M. Bovis screening test usually performed?When animals moved interstate or internationally
**What are the 2 tests you use to test for M. bovis & briefly explain when each is used(1) Caudal Fold Test (CFT) - Initial screening test [accredited vet must perform this]
(2) Comparative Cervical Test (CCT) - more specific, test on any animal positive on the initial skin test
Explain how the caudal fold test (skin test) is performed, how it's read & what it tells youInject sm amt of purified protein derivative [PPD] of Mycobacterial origin intradermally in the skin of the caudal fold at base of the tail. 72 hours later, the person who injected reads the result. A swollen area is a positive test-these are called "responders". A positive test only tells you if there was EXPOSURE (not dz) to ANY of the Mycobacterial agents. It doesn't necessarily mean dz (or even exposure) to M. Bovis-common czs of false positives are M. avium subsp paraTB: Johne’s dz, M. avium (Avian TB), or Atypical Mycobacteria
If the cattle tests positive on the caudal fold test, what do you do? What happens after this?Call state or APHIS vet immediately - More testing will have to be done before 10 days or after 60 days after the 72 hr reading (why? bc from day 10-60, the caudal fold test will suppress reactivity of skin in the comparative cervical test & they might be categorized as non-infected. after 60days this suppression goes away) Then, Fed/State vets conduct the more specific Comparative Cervical test (CCT) on any animal positive on the initial skin test
When is the Comparative Cervical Test (CCT) done for M. bovis? How do you do it? What does it tell you?Done to test the positives found w/ the caudal fold test. Will ID WHICH Mycobacteria they were infected w/ exposed to. Intradermal injxn of tuberculin, aka purified protein derivative [PPD], of M. avian/ M. bovis at separate sites on mid cervical area → compare response of 2 areas 72 hrs post-injxn. If they are positive for M. bovis on the CCT (Caudal Cervical Test) they are "reactors" & this suggests the animal has been exposed, might not necessarily have dz tho
Test "responder" vs test "reactor"?Responder = Positive in the Caudal Fold Test
Reactor = Positive in the Comparative Cervical Test
Depending on the situation & the State, True “reactors” will lead to...? (2)QUARANTINE OF THE ENTIRE HERD, followed by:
(1) Removed from the herd (sent to slaughter if healthy, or otherwise destroyed) & examined for PM lesions followed by more testing of the herd. Herds & other exposed animals will be tested until negative results are obtained TWICE on all members of the herd
(2) Depopulation of the entire herd may be depopulated by sending ALL healthy animals to slaughter or otherwise destroying all animals
(Remember: Food safety notes for TB reactors)
What is a Gamma interferon test & when/why would you use it?(Accredited/regulatory vets only) A blood test for cattle which Measures gamma interferon production in response to Mycobacterial antigens, which can differentiate M. bovis & M. avium. Done 3–30 days post-CFT. Used instead of CCT on CFT responders as minimizes handling for repeat exam 72hrs post CCT
**What are 3 major challenges to M. bovis Eradication in the US?(1) Sporadic but persistent detection of TB in dairy industry, southwestern US notably California
(2) Endemic in Michigan (free-ranging white-tailed deer)
(3) Mexican origin cattle ((they move w/o restriction after entering US, before entering the Mexican TB tests generally have low rates of response & there is no federal requirement to test after entry into the US)
Is there a Vx for humans?Vx against M. TB by using the M. bovis strain
Is there a Vx for cattle?No

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