VPH - Midterm 3

drraythe's version from 2016-03-08 10:12

Post-mortem inspection (most important part of meat hygiene!)

Question Answer
When do you make a disposition on food for human consumption?POST MORTEM (Take into account findings at AM inspection if provided)
**5 principles must be considered in making a final disposition. What are they?(1) Removal & condemnation of dzd or abnormal tissue
(2) Concept of localized versus generalized & acute versus chronic
(3) Derangement of body fxns (Jaundice/Icterus)
(4) Injurious to health of consumer
(5) Offensive & repugnant (Ex: are malignant lymphoma & eosinophilic myositis)
You determine systemic involvement by what 2 Parameters?(1) Involvment of the Lymphatic or Circulatory system
(2) Acute vs Chronic
Carcass disposition depends on severity of abscessation → explain what you'd do w/ localized abscesses & what you'd do w/ multiple lesions in multiple organs abscessation?Local: Trim away bad portion
Generalized: Condemn
Which type of dz is usually generalized - acute or chronic?Acute lesions often generalized bc of the body's inability to limit the infxn
Acute lesions often generalized bc of the body's inability to limit the infxn. What are some examples of dzs which are acute & infectious?Anthrax
(Acute & Infectious sounds scary, good thing PSA-TV is there to fill u in!)
What is septicemia, is it usually local or generalized, acute or chronic?Acute, generalized, it is the state of an advanced generalized [systemic] dz process
*Principles → derangement of body fxns → 4 major examples of this?(1) Uremia (due to obstructive urinary calculi)
(2) Icterus (impaired liver fxn)
(3) Generalized edema (CHF)
(4) Emaciation (Acetonaemic scent to meat)
Why is urinary calculi often a cz of condemning whole carcass unfit for human food?(Derangement of bodily fxns) Common in males-obstruction of urethra can cz rupture of the urinary bladder leading to infiltration of urine into the tissues & the production of a uremic odor to the carcass when the abdominal cavity is opened
*Why does icterus mean carcass is unfit for human consumption?Bile duct obstruction or liver flukes or generalized dz can be indicated by this
*Ddx for icterusHigh corn diets or Guernsey/jersey cows which normally have yellow fat
*PHV may suspect presence of residues in the animal carcass/parts, in-plant screening tests can be used. What are 2 of these?(1) Fast Antimicrobial Screen Test [FAST]
(2) Kidney Inhibition Swab [KIS]
*Fast Antimicrobial Screen Test → explain thisTissue fluid from kidney is placed on a plate w/ a harmless bacteria → if there is ABx residues in the tissues there will be a zone of inhibition around the tissue fluid that was placed there, in which case PHV is to continue to retain the carcass & parts & submit appropriate tissue samples (liver, kidney & muscle tissue) for further testing at the appropriate FSIS Laboratory
When an illegal residue is detected FSIS, what 3 things happen?(1) FSIS reports the violation to FDA’s CVM
(2) FSIS notifies producers when they have exceeded the tolerances & tests animals from subsequent flocks or herds to ensure the particular farm remains below legally permissible levels
(3) FDA continues the investigation on the indicted farm
If the owner of a farm slaughtered or custom slaughtered animal has insisted upon eating the meat from an animal in which proper drug withdrawal periods were not observed, what do you reccomend?Discard the liver & kidneys, liberally excise the injxn site area & discard & do not serve to family members and/or guests that are known to be allergic or sensitive to the particular ABx
Examples of offensive or repugnant meatsMalignant lymphoma (aesthetic reasons)
Eosinophilic myositis (aesthetic-if localized, trim & rest is fine)
Liver flukes
Liver abscesses
White spotty livers in pigs (czd by larval migration)
Muscular hemorrhage or “Blood splash”
Milk fever
Swine Erysipelas
What do you do if you find localized liver abscesses? (usually from ↓ pH bc being fattened, rumen damage, blood carries fusobacterium to liver where it abscesses)With a Hx of good health & the absence of additional post-mortem findings, condemn liver & rest is fine
**White spotty liver in pig - when is this good to just get rid of liver, when is the carcass condemned?If just liver affected, can condemn liver (if liver dmg super slight, can trim that & liver its still fit) but if the Ascaris suum are occluding bile duct & meat is icteric, then CONDEMN CARCASS bc icterus is a no go
**White spotted kidney dz in pig livers are usually due to?? Is it a single-pig problem or a herd wide problem?The migration of the intestinal parasite A. suum
Several pigs are presented for slaughter - if you see these lesions in 1 pig liver you will encounter them in the other livers as well since this is a herd problem
Can you pass a carcass w/ widespread skin lesions of Erysipelas?No, nor ones w/ systemic involvement
When can you pass a carcass w/ Erysipelas?NOT widespread skin lesions or systemic involvement - zoonotic, but if small areas affected or localized to arthritic joints, remove these areas & rest of carcass can pass
*3 options for disposition at PM(1) Pass for food
(2) Condemn all or part (trim)
(3) Pass w/ restriction
**What are your choices for dealing w/ Muscular Hemorrhage or “Blood splash”?(1) Since the affected pork is harmless it could be consumed by humans
(2) Since some consumers may find the petechiae aesthetically unpleasing you could trimmed & discard the blood stained flesh or ground it up
(3) Discard the carcass
**What is Ketosis? What is it a result of?An odor described as sweet but offensive present in the meat of feverish cattle or which were close to calving prior to slaughter

Poultry inspection

Question Answer
How are ratites classified?Red meat (pH similar to beef)
**Name the edible parts that are called gibletsHeart
4 major differences btwn poultry & red meat inspection?(1) Ante-mortem bird-by-bird inspection not feasible so birds inspected by truckload
(2) An official U.S. suspect pen is not reqd for poultry antemortem inspection
(3) Rectal temp. (Not reqd poultry inspection)
(4) Observation of humane slaughter not legally reqd for poultry
Some symptoms of dz you'd see ante-mortem in poultrySwelling around the head & eyes
Edema of the wattles
Gasping & sneezing [respiratory]
Abnormal color or consistency of stool
Skin lesions/Dermatitis
Lameness/Joint lesions
Torticollis or wry neck-head is tilted toward 1 side
*List of dzs/conditions in poultry that warrant the appropriate postmortem dispositionResidues
Air Sacculitis
Missing viscera
3 options if there are biological residues in the poultry(1) Such poultry may be returned to the grower
(2) The operator of the establishment & FSIS inspector / PHV opt to process the carcasses & all parts thereof retained for disposition /in-plant screening /analysis of the residue
(3) MORE COMMONLY…they are slaughtered at the establishment & buried or incinerated
What do you do if poultry has TB lesions? (What is the lesion?)Lesion is miliary nodule in liver, maybe also intestines & bones. Carcasses affected w/ tuberculosis are condemned. A single definitive lesion is all that is reqd to condemn a poultry carcass for tuberculosis
Leukosis usually means 1 of what 2 things, what do you do if evidence of Leukosis?Marek’s, Lymphoid Leukosis → condemn (aesthetic)
What’s the rule of thumb if you see tumor(s)? (Not Leukosis tho)1 Tumor = Trim & pass
2 or more = Condemn
Septicemia → any sign of systemic involvement is reason for condemnation. Some signs would be...Dehydration
Color changes - Skin, Liver & other parts
Necrotic areas
Carcasses are condemned for Air Sacculitis if (3)(1) Air Sacculitis is extensive
(2) Exudate cannot be effectively removed
(3) If Air Sacculitis occurs + systemic change [Pneumonia, Pericarditis, Perihepatitis might be present]
When does "contamination" of a carcass merit condemnation?Carcasses so contaminated they cannot be inspected
Contaminated w/ bile or feces to the extent that the inspector cannot determine if carcass is wholesome
Those that fall into open sewers/evisceration troughs
What do you do about bruises?Slight/localized bruise - trim & pass
Whole carcass involvement - condemn
Would you condemn a synovitis carcass?A carcass w/ synovitis is not condemned unless it showing systemic signs
Incomplete bleed out leads to condemnation of cadaver. 2 reasons?(1) Dead birds inadvertently hung on line in live area
(2) Birds whose throat was not cut. The cherry red color of the carcass is characteristic. Cadavers are condemned
What do you do w/ overscald & what is the criteria to determine its overscalded?The muscle must be cooked through the level of the deep pectoral muscle. Breast muscle w/ a very cooked appearance → CONDEMN
Parasites =? (Condemn or Pass?)CONDEMN (Yay)
Missing viscera condemnation. What 3 organs would be missing to constitute thisIf any of the 3 major organs-heart, liver & spleen-are not presented for inspection w/ the corresponding bird from which it came

Microbial, Parasitic agents of animal origin implicated in Human Foodborne illness

Question Answer
USDA Recommended Safe Minimum Internal Temperatures → STEAKS & ROASTS145⁰F
USDA Recommended Safe Minimum Internal Temperatures → FISH145⁰F
USDA Recommended Safe Minimum Internal Temperatures → Pork160⁰F
USDA Recommended Safe Minimum Internal Temperatures → Ground beef160⁰F
USDA Recommended Safe Minimum Internal Temperatures → Egg dishes160⁰F
USDA Recommended Safe Minimum Internal Temperatures → Chicken breasts165⁰F
USDA Recommended Safe Minimum Internal Temperatures → Whole poultry165⁰F