VPH - Midterm 2

pbhati17's version from 2017-03-07 00:48

Ante-mortem continued

Question Answer
TB reactors vs Brucellosis reactors → which requires a special inspection & why?TB reactors need special inspection to determine if theyre fit
Brucellosis reactors dont
What happens if you have a TB reactor when you test a bunch of cows for TB?They undergo a special postmortem exam at a USDA designated slaughter facility (special facility). Before that, State & federal meat inspectors check the lymph nodes, other nodes & organs of each cow for signs of TB. If TB lesions are found on the carcass, tissues are collected for confirmation, if confirmed, CONDEMNED. If there are no CS at ante-mortem & no lesions at postmortem, they are "passed for cooking" (meaning meat must be cooked to internal temp of 170⁰ F for 30min BEFORE being sold to consumer)
**2 important ways to protect humans from BrucellosisPasteurize milk
Advise cooking or curing (not proven to transmit through meat tho)
When are TB tests done on cattle?Twice yearly in dairy herds (skin test using intradermal tuberculin)
Interstate movement of cattle (skin test)
Postmortem inspection at the abattoir
Upon completion of ante-mortem inspection, a ____ is used to certify to the establishment that the animals inspected are 'passed' for slaughterPen card
What is emergency slaughter & who isn't allowed to be emergency slaughtered?Like if there's a non-ambulatory animal or it was hit by a car or something. NOT COWS THO bc no post-mortem signs of BSE
What do you do if you have a non-ambulatory bovine?Not allowed to be slaughtered for food, but they are condemned & they are to be humanely euthanized by trained personnel in a timely manner (not the next day, that would be inhumane to let them suffer for that long)
What is a "suspect" animal?Animal that is affected w/ a dz or condition that may result in condemnation of part or all the carcass on postmortem. These suspects may be set apart for later re-examination & slaughtered separately from other animals (kill at the end of the day)
Explain what is done w/ a suspect animalSuspect are placed in a suspect pen, accompanied by a FSIS form & identified by ear tags (silver) & forms completed showing:
(1) CS
(2) Temperature or reasons for condemnation
(Silver Suspect)
What is done w/ a condemned animal?Ear tagged (red tag) as U.S condemned (makes sense, red means stop) & a separate FSIS form completed w/ the justification for condemnation. Then the carcass is either disposed of in the plant’s own disposal facilities or at separate premises
What are some reasons an animal would be condemnedThose w/ temps AT OR Over 106⁰ F (Pigs) or AT OR OVER 105⁰ F (Cattle, Sheep, Goat or Horses). Environmental factors should be considered. Those affected w/ dzs such as Rabies, Tetanus, Listeriosis & DOWNER COWS

Humane Slaughter

Question Answer
What is the definition of humane slaughter?All animals must be rendered insensible to pain on the 1st application of the stunning device before being shackled, hoisted, or bled
What are 2 things exempt from human slaughter act?Poultry & Ritual Slaughter
What has the Humane Slaughter Act prohibited (international related)It also prohibited the importation of meat from animals that had not been handled or slaughtered in a humane method
What should you know about repeat stunning?Animal should be stunned the 1st time! If not, then you could be fined or if prob w/ equipment will attach US reject tag to instrument
It is important that stunning be completed beforeThe shackles are attached to the animal for hoisting & bleeding. (The aim is to render an animal unconscious before it is shackled & hoisted in preparation for slaughter ….in order to eliminate pain, discomfort & stress from the procedure)
What are the 4 ways to stun?Captive bolt (2 types)
Carbon dioxide
Explain 2 kinds of ways captive bolt guns discharge the bolt (which is avoided in cattle?)(1) Bolt discharged by a measured charge of gunpowder
(2) Bolt discharged by accurately controlled compressed air - avoid in cattle now (BSE risk see SRM’s)
What are the 2 kinds of captive bolt guns?(1) Penetrating
(2) Non-penetrating (mushroom head)
Explain how the penetrating head captive gun bolt worksBolt in the penetrating type of captive bolt stunner penetrates the skull & enters the brain. Unconsciousness is czd by brain damage 2° to sudden changes in intracranial pressure & concussion. The penetrating head destroys the cerebrum but leaves the brainstem intact so that the animals heart continues to beat so facilitating the bleeding process
What is the downside to a penetrating captive bolt stunner?Must remove large blood clots, hair, bone, splinters & debris from the head
Explain how the non-penetrating (mushroom head) bolt gun worksWhen fired, the mushroom head meets the skull, but does not penetrate the brain. The animal becomes insensible from concussion & sudden changes in intracranial pressure
Benefit of the mushroom-head (non-penetrating) bolt gun?Dont have to remove large blood clots, hair, bone, splinters & debris from the head
Which type of bolt gun is prohibited bc of BSE & why?The "pneumatic bolt" as air-injxn into the cranium could result in brain tissue entering the carcass
Explain SRMs (Specified Risk Materials)Parts of the animals that are considered inedible & prohibited use for human food
**SRMs (Specified Risk Materials) for ALL BOVINE (no age restriction) are?Tonsils, distal ileum of the small intestine
**SRMs (Specified Risk Materials) for BOVINE 30mo of age & older are?Tonsils & distal ileum is for everyone, including these guys, plus:
Trigeminal ganglia
Spinal cord
Dorsal root ganglia (DRG)
Vertebral column (excluding the vertebrae of the tail, the transverse processes of the thoracic & lumbar vertebrae & the wings of the sacrum, so any vertebrae NOT containing the spinal cord are ok to keep)
(*Don't forget NO DOWNER COWS - automatically condemned)
Gunshot as a stunning method can be used in which animals & what is the regulation on the caliber (in general)Gunshot can be used on cattle, calves, sheep, goats, swine, horses & mules. Caliber of the firearm must be such that a single shot of a bullet into the animal produces immediate unconsciousness
Why is gunshot not often used as a stunning method?There is risk of the bullet ricocheting. Also, a large part of the brain, cheek meat & head trimmings may contain whole or fragmented bullets thus the Regulations states that after inspection of the head the brains, cheek meat & head trimmings are not to be saved for human food → so only part of head that can be used is the tongue
Why is CO2 rarely used?Varying effectiveness & costs
Who can you use CO2 gas as an ANESTHETIC agent on? (Whats the mixture of gas in the chamber to induce insensibility to pain?)Swine, sheep & calves (60% CO2 w/ 40% atmospheric air). Animal loses consciousness 15 seconds after entering the chamber
Explain CO2 ANx (stunning) vs CO2 slaughterStunning: Animal is in for about 15 sec until unconscious & insensibility to pain
Slaughter: Animal remains CO2 chamber until asphyxiation occurs (unconsciousness leading to death = no heartbeat or breathing)
Who can you use CO2 gas as a SLAUGHTER agent on?Pigs


Question Answer
**What are the 3 major advantages to CO2 slaughter?Reduction of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) pork
Eliminates blood splattering
Eliminates broken bones/backs
Explain what 'pale, soft, exudative pork' is & how it happens(Reduced problem w/ CO2 slaughter) The meat is pale, lacks firmness & exudes fluid when cut (not as juicy when cooked). It occurs in the carcasses of pigs suffering from:
(1) PSS (Porcine Stress Syndrome)
(2) Normal pigs which have preslaughter stress resulting in a rapid drop in pH of the carcass
Who is electrical stunning approved for use on? (Who is it used in most often?)Hogs
(most often used for hogs & poultry)
Most popular stunning method in US for small speciesElectrical stunning
What is it important that you monitor in electrical stunning?It is important that the amperage is closely regulated to prevent broken backs &/or potential hemorrhages. (Also animal is physically restrained (except poultry) so that the electric current can be applied w/ a minimum of excitement & discomfort to the animal)
What are the 2 types of electrical stunning?Head only & cardiac arrest
Head electrical stunning → tongs in pigs → how does it work to cz stunning?Electric tong to head induces a grand mal epileptic seizure, resulting in insensibility to pain. The current passing through the animal must be enough to ensure surgical ANx throughout the bleeding process
Head stunning → muscular hemorrhage: explain how this happens & why? Where are the most common sites for this blood splashing/speckling in pigs?It results from too high of a current which damages capillaries. In the pig, hemorrhages are found in any muscle mass but most frequently in the hip, thigh, loin, diaphragm & shoulder
**Extravasation of blood (blood splashing) happens less w/ which 2 methods of stunning.(1) Carbon dioxide
(2) Electrical stun (cardiac arrest) (most likely to get blood splashing when electrical stunning is used vs CO2)
Important to avoid a delay btwn stunning & bleeding as (2)(1) The animal can regain consciousness on the rail
(2) The method promotes mm hemorrhage
What is the advantage to cardiac arrest electrical stunning?No broken backs or hemorrhages that you get w/ head only electrical stunning
Explain how cardiac arrest electrical stunning worksInduces a grand mal epileptic seizure & cardiac fibrillation essentially inducing a heart attack. The placement of electrodes varies from plant to plant, but the head must be stunned 1st (Electrodes placed across the head then thoracic region only (2 phase stunning) ) OR simultaneously w/ the heart: electrodes placed on the head & thoracic region at the same time (cardiac arrest stunning) (if you did chest 1st there would be a lot of pain which would be inhumane)
Which is higher voltage used - head or cardiac arrest electrical stunning?Cardiac = Higher voltage
"Stun to stick (slaughter)" time is not as critical in.... head or cardiac elec. stunning?Not as critical in cardiac bc animal is less likely to gain sensibility
**Which Elec method (head or cardiac) reduces blood splashing?CARDIAC = Deep stunning. Blood circulation to the brain is stopped, blood splashing is reduced
How do you determine insensibility at slaughter if animal is stunned w/...captive bolt?Should collapse immediately
Regular breathing should cease
There should be no corneal or blink reflex if the eye is touched
At no time after stunning should the animal__Vocalize
How do you determine insensibility at slaughter if animal is stunned w/...electric stunning?Stun → instant unconsciousness → spasms last up to 30 sec. Thus, do not evaluate for insensibility until at least 30sec after electrical stunning
What do you think if an animal is stunned by captive bolt, gunshot, or electricity? What if they're righting themselves?It is normal to have leg-kicking reflexes in an animal that has been properly stunned w/ electricity, captive bolt or gunshot. But if they show righting reflex, they must be re-stunned immediately
How would you properly bleed an animal?The main blood vessels of the neck, the jugular & carotid vessels should be completely severed to facilitate adequate drainage of blood from the carcass, so that the animal dies from cerebral anoxia. Incisions should be fast & precise. The bleeding knife should be sharp as a blunt knife could dmg the cut ends of the blood vessels causing bleeding to be incomplete resulting in excessive retention of blood in the tissue leading to early spoilage of meat
2 big reasons youd want as little time as possible btwn stunning & bleeding? (What should the time interval be?)(1) Regaining consciousness on the rail particularly where animals have been stunned electrically. For poultry & livestock, the interval should be kept at periods of < 1 min
(2) Muscle hemorrhage czs meat to decompose quickly
**If tongue is infected, but otherwise healthy cow....can you send it to slaughter?CAN be sent to slaughter, condition is localized. Only head will be condemned

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