VPH- Midterm 2

kelseyfmeyer's version from 2015-09-27 20:54

Ante Mortem continued

Question Answer
TB reactors vs Brucellosis reactors--> which requires a special inspection, and why?TB reactors need special inspection to determine if theyre fit brucellosis testers dont
what happens if you have a TB reactor when you test a bunch of cows for TB?they undergo a special post mortem exam examination at a USDA designated slaughter facility (special facility) Then there, At the abattoir, state & federal meat inspectors check the federal meat inspectors check the lypmph nodes & other nodes & other organs of each cow for signs of TB. If TB lesions are found on the carcass, tissues are collected for confirmation, if confirmed, CONDEMNED. If there are no clinical signs at ante-mortem and no lesions at post mortem, they are "passed for cooking" (meaning meat must be cooked to internal temp of 170*F for 30min BEFORE being sold to consumer)
two important ways to protect humans from brucellosispasturize milk, advise cooking or curing (not proven to transmit through meat tho)
when are TB tests done on cattle?Twice yearly in dairy herds (skin test using intradermal tuberculin), Interstate movement of cattle (skin test), Postmortem inspection at the abattoir
Upon completion of ante-mortem inspection, a ____ is used to certify to the establishment the animals inspected that are passed for slaughterpen card
what is emergency slaughter, and who isn't allowed to be emergency slaughtered?like if there's an non-ambulatory animal or it was hit by a car or sthing. NOT COWS THOUGH because no post-mortem signs of BSE
what do you do if you have an non-ambulatory bovine?not allowed to be slaughtered for food, but they are condemned and They are to be humanely euthanized by trained personnel in a timely manner (not the next day).
what is a "suspect" animal?animal That is affected with a disease or condition that may result in condemnation of part or all the carcass on postmortem. These suspects may be set apart for later re-examination and slaughtered separately from other animals, i.e., at the end of the day's kill.
explain what is done with a suspect animalSuspect are placed in a suspect pen, accompanied by an FSIS form and identified by ear tags (silver) and forms completed showing: (1) clinical signs (2) Temperature or reasons for condemnation (Silver Suspect)
what is done with a condemned animal?ear tagged (red tag) as U.S condemned (makes sense, red means stop) and a separate FSIS form completed with the justification for condemnation. Then The carcass is either disposed of in the plant’s own disposal facilities or at separate premises.
what are some reasons an animal would be condemnedThose With Temperatures AT OR Over 1060 F (Pigs) Or AT OR OVER 1050 F (Cattle, Sheep, Goat Or Horses). Environmental Factors Should Be Considered. Those affected with diseases such as rabies, tetanus, and listeriosis.. DOWNER COWS

Humane Slaughter

Question Answer
what is the definition of human slaughter?All animals must be rendered insensible to pain on the first application of the stunning device before being shackled, hoisted, or bled.
what are two things exempt from human slaughter act?poultry and ritual slaughter
what has the humane slaughter act prohibited (international related)It also prohibited the importation of meat from animals that had not been handled or slaughtered in a humane method.
what should you know about repeat stunning?NOT ALLOWED. must be stunned the first time. If prob with equipment will attach US reject tag to instrument
It is important that stunning be completed before--the shackles are attached to the animal for hoisting and bleeding. (The aim is to render an animal unconscious before it is shackled and hoisted in preparation for slaughter ….in order to eliminate pain, discomfort and stress from the procedure.)
what are the 4 ways to stun?captive bolt (2 types), Gunshot, Carbon dioxide, Electric
explain 2 kinds of ways captive bolt guns discharge the bolt (which is avoided in cattle?)(1) bolt dischaged by a measured charge of gunpowder (2) bolt discharged by accurately controlled compressed air-avoid in cattle now (BSE risk see SRM’s).
what are the two kinds of captive bolt guns?(1) penetrating (2) non-penetrating (mushroom head)
Explain how the penetrating head captive gun bolt works bolt in the penetrating type of captive bolt stunner penetrates the skull and enters the brain. Unconsciousness is caused by brain damage secondary to sudden changes in intracranial pressure, and concussion. The penetrating head destroys the cerebrum but leaves the brainstem intact so that the animals heart continues to beat so facilitating the bleeding process.
what is the downside to a penetrating captive bolt stunner?must remove large blood clots, hair, bone, splinters, and debris from the head
explain how the non-penetrating (mushroom head) bolt gun worksWhen fired, the mushroom head meets the skull, but does not penetrate the brain. The animal becomes insensible from concussion and sudden changes in intracranial pressure
benefit of the mushroom-head (non-penetrating) bolt gun?dont have to remove large blood clots, hair, bone, splinters, and debris from the head
which type of bolt gun is prohibited because of BSE, and why?the pneumatic bolt as air-injection into the cranium could result in brain tissue entering the carcass.
explain SRMs (specified risk materials)parts of the animals that are considered inedible & prohibited use for human food.
**SRMs (specified risk materals) for ALL BOVINE (no age restriction) are?Tonsils, distal ileum of the small intestine
**SRMs (specified risk materals) for BOVINE 30mo of age and older are?(tonsils and distal ileum is for everyone, including these guys, plus:) brain, skull, eyes, trigeminal ganglia, spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and vertebral column excluding the vertebrae of the tail, the transverse processes of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, and the wings of the sacrum). (*don't forget NO DOWNER COWS- automatically condemned)
Gunshot as a stunning method can be used in which animals, and what is the regulation on the caliber (in general)Gunshot can be used on cattle, calves, sheep, goats, swine, horses, and mules. Caliber of the firearm must be such that a single shot of a bullet into the animal produces immediate unconsciousness.
why is gunshot not often used as a stunning method?there is risk of the bullet ricocheting. Also, a large part of the brain, cheek meat, and head trimmings may contain whole or fragmented bullets thus the Regulations states that after inspection of the head the brains, cheek meat, and head trimmings are not to be saved for human food---> so only part of head that can be used is the tongue
why is CO2 rarely used?varying effectiveness and costs
who can you use CO2 gas as an ANESTHETIC agent on? (whats the mixture of gas in the chamber to induce insensibility to pain?)swine, sheep, and calves (60% CO2 with 40 % atmospheric air). Animal loses consciousness 15 seconds after entering the chamber.
explain CO2 anesthesia(stunning) vs CO2 slaughterin stunning, animal is in for about 15 sec until unconscious and insensibility to pain. In slaughter, it is required that the animal remain in the CO2 chamber until asphyxiation (unconsciousness leading to death-no heartbeat or breathing) occurs
who can you use CO2 gas as a SLAUGHTER agent on?pigs
what are the three major advantages to CO2 slaughter?Reduction of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) pork, eliminates blood splattering, eliminates broken bones/backs.
explain what Pale, Soft, exuldative pork is and how it happens(reduced problem with CO2 slaughter) the meat is pale, lacks firmness, and exudes fluid when cut (not as juicy when cooked). It occurs in the carcasses of pigs suffering from: (1) PSS (porcine stress syndrome) (2) Normal pigs which have preslaughter stress resulting in a rapid drop in pH of the carcass
who is electrical stunning approved for use on? (who is it used in most often?)is used for hogs, calves, sheep, goats and ostriches (most often used for hogs and poultry)
most popular stunning method in US for small specieselectrical stunning
what is it important that you monitor in electrical stunning?It is important that the amperage is closely regulated to prevent broken backs and /or potential haemorrhages. (also animal is physically restrained (except poultry) so that the electric current can be applied with a minimum of excitement and discomfort to the animal.)
what are the two types of electrical stunning?Head only and cardiac arrest
head electrical stunning--> tongs in pigs--> how does it work to cause stunning?electric tong to head induces a gran mal epileptic seizure, resulting in insensibility to pain. The current passing through the animal must be enough to ensure surgical anesthesia throughout bleeding.
head stunning--> muscular hemorrhage: explain how this happens and why? where are the most common sites for this blood splashing/speckling in pigs?it results from too high of a current which damages capillaries. In the pig, hemorrhages are found in any muscle mass but most frequently in the hip, thigh, loin, diaphragm and shoulder
Extravasation of blood (blood splashing) occurs during the slaughtering process no matter what method of humane slaughter is used, with the exceptions of (when is blood splashing more/most common?)(1) the carbon dioxide stun/slaughter (2) electrical slaughter (cardiac arrest) (most likely to happen when electrical stunning is used)
Important to avoid a delay between stunning and bleeding as (2)(1) the animal can regain consciousness on the rail (2) the method promotes mm hmmorhage
what is the advantage to cardiac arrest electrical stunning?no broken backs or haemorrhages that one gets with head only electrical stunning
explain how cardiac arrest electrical stunning worksInduces a gran mal epileptic seizure and cardiac fibrillation essentially inducing a heart attack. The placement of electrodes varies from plant to plant, but the head must be stunned FIRST (Electrodes placed across the head then thoracic region only (two phase stunning).) OR simultaneously with the heart: electrodes placed on the head and thoracic region at the same time (cardiac arrest stunning) (if you did chest first there would be a lot of pain which would be inhumane)
which is higher voltage used- head or cardiac arrest electrical stunning?cardiac=higher voltage
"stun to stick(slaughter)" time is not as critical in.... head or cardiac elec. stunning?not as critical in heart bc animal is less likely to gain sensibility
which elec method (head or cardiac) reduces blood splashing?CARDIAC= deep stunning> blood circulation to the brain is stopped, blood splashing is reduced.
how do you determine insensibility at slaughter if animal is stunned with...captive bolt?should collapse immediately, regular breathing should cease, There should be no corneal or blink reflex, if the eye is touched
At no time after stunning should the animal__vocalize
how do you determine insensibility at slaughter if animal is stunned with...electric stunning?stun--> instant unconsciousness--> spasms last up to 30 sec. Thus, do not evaluated for insensibility until at least 30s seconds after electrical stunning.
what do you think if an animal is stunned by captive bolt, gunshot, or electricity? What if they're righting themselves?It is normal to have leg-kicking reflexes in an animal that has been properly stunned with electricity, captive bolt or gunshot. But if they show righting reflex, they must be re-stunned immediately
how would you properly bleed an animal?the main blood vessels of the neck, the jugular and carotid vessels should be completely severed to facilitate adequate drainage of blood from the carcass, so that the animal dies from cerebral anoxia. Incisions should be fast and precise. The bleeding knife should be sharp as a blunt knife could damage the cut ends of the blood vessels causing bleeding to be incomplete resulting in excessive retention of blood in the tissue leading to early spoilage of meat.
two big reasons youd want as little time as possible between stunning and bleeding? (what should the time interval be?)(1) Regaining consciousness on the rail particularly where animals have been stunned electrically. For poultry and livestock, the interval should be kept at periods of < 1 minute (2) Muscle haemorrhage >cause meat to decompose quickly
CQ: if tongue is infected, otherwise healthy cow....can you send it to slaughter?CAN be sent to slaughter, condition is localized. only head will be condemned

Recent badges