VPH - Midterm 1

pbhati17's version from 2017-03-06 21:21

Agencies & HACCP stuff

Question Answer
Which agency approves slaughter facilities; regulates labeling?USDA (US Dept of Agriculture)
Which agency is for human food safety; including making sure imported seafood is safe/labeledFDA-DHHS (Dept of Human Health & Services)
(This is under FYI but she asked this in class) What is Scombroid poisoning?Happens when you eat spoiled fish...get rashes & such bc czs release of histamine (think tuna)
Which dept has responsibility for safety of human food supply in regards to seafood, SHELL eggs, milk?DHHS
Which agency is for regulating drugs (residues), animal products/feeds + their labels?FDA-CVM (Center for Veterinary Medicine)
Which agency regulates for biologics (Vxs, diagnostics)USDA-APHIS (Agriculture Animal & Plant Health Inspection)
Which agency is for meat/poultry inspection, egg products & catfish?USDA-FSIS (Food Safety & Inspection Service)
Which agency regulates environmental contamination of meat w/ pesticides; work w/ FDA + FSIS to correct?EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
**WHO oversees federal meat & poultry Inspection?FSIS!!! (Food Safety & Inspection Service)
**Who has Authority over the approval & use of veterinary biologics (Vxs, diagnostic tests) in animals?USDA-APHIS (Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service)
**Who has the broad responsibility for assuring safety of the human food supply?FDA (Food & Drug Administration)
Who is federal agency that conducts & supports health promotion, prevention & preparedness activities in the United States w/ the goal of improving overall public healthCDC (Centers for Dz Control)
What is HACCP?Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Points
What is the HACCP designed to do?HACCP (Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Points) is a systematic preventive approach to food safety to identify & prevent physical, chemical & biological hazards in food before it becomes a finished product
What should you know about importation of meat from other countries?Meat & poultry can only be imported from countries which have a national inspection program for their exporting facilities equal to the U.S. program (90% of the U.S. meat/poultry imports come from Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Denmark)
Is HACCP for food safety or quality?SAFETY → it is a PREVENTATIVE approach
What is a GMP, what is a SOP & are they about safety or quality?QUALITY of food
GMP: Good Manufacturing Practices
SOP: Standard Operating Procedure
(Not sure if important) What are the 7 principals of the HACCP?(1) Conduct a hazard analysis
(2) Identify critical control points (CCP)
(3) Establish critical limits for each CCP
(4) Establish CCP monitoring requirements
(5) Establish corrective actions
(6) Establish record keeping procedures
(7) Verification of HACCP
What is a CCP? (Define & explain)Critical Control Point. Is a point, step, or procedure in a food manufacturing process at which a control can be applied & a food safety hazard prevented, eliminated, or reduced to acceptable levels
What’s a critical limit?A critical limit is the maximum or minimum value to which a physical, biological or chemical hazard must be controlled at a critical control point to prevent, eliminate, or reduce to an acceptable level
What can you use to kill pathogens on heads & carcasses at slaughter? What must not contaminate the carcass? (Beef)2% conc lactic acid, no feces or milk can contaminate
(Not sure if important) 5 steps to prevent the occurrence of residue violations in livestock or poultry at federal slaughter plants are?(1) Confirm producer Hx
(2) Buy residue-free animals
(3) ID of animals for trace back
(4) Inform FSIS of producer info (re: residues)
(5) Notify producers if they violate FDA tolerances


Question Answer
What’s a SRM?Specified Risk Material
**2 exemptions to the wholesome meat act?(1) Custom slaughter (for owner family & non-paying guests, exempt from inspection. must be stamped not for sale)
(2) Farm slaughter (By law, carcasses or edible by-products from animals slaughtered on the farm w/o inspection CANNOT be sold or traded)
What’s a custom slaughter facility & what regulation is there on product from these?State licensed slaughter facility that does not have a state or federal inspector on duty. Custom slaughter operations slaughter or process uninspected meat for persons, usually farmers that contract them to slaughter or process an animal for their own personal use. The meat is cut, packaged & labeled “not for sale.” (these are places you take a deer or hunted animals to be dressed)
Explain Principle 1 of HACCP: Conduct a hazard analysisPlants determine the food safety hazards & identify the preventive measures they can apply to control these hazards. The hazard could be biological, chemical or physical origin
Explain principal 2 of HACCP: Identify critical control pointsA Critical Control Point (CCP) is a point, step, or procedure in a food manufacturing process at which control can be applied & as a result, a food safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated or reduced to an acceptable level
Explain Principle 3 of HACCP: Establish critical limits for each critical control pointA critical limit is the maximum or minimum value to which a physical, biological or chemical hazard must be controlled at a critical control point to prevent, eliminate or reduce to an acceptable level
Explain Principle 4 of HACCP: Establish critical control point monitoring requirements.To ensure the process is under control at each critical control point. In the United States, the FSIS requires that each monitoring procedure & its frequency be listed in the HACCP plan
Explain Principle 5 of HACCP: Establish corrective actions.To ensure that no product injurious to health or otherwise adulterated as a result of the deviation enters commerce
Explain Principle 6 of HACCP: Establish record keeping proceduresThe HACCP regulation requires that all facilities maintain certain documents, inclding its hazard analysis & written HACCP plan. The FSIS requires that federally-inspected establishments that slaughter cattle must implement & maintain written procedures for the removal of SRMs (Specified Risk Materials) in their establishments & incorporate this into their HACCP procedures
Explain Principle 7 of HACCP: Establish procedures for ensuring the HACCP system is working as intended.Verification ensures the HACCP plan is adequate, that is, working as intended. FSIS is requiring that the HACCP plan incld verification tasks to be performed by plant personnel. Verification tasks would also be performed by FSIS inspectors. Both FSIS & industry will undertake microbial testing as 1 of several verification activities
**FSIS TAGS: US Rejected - when is this tag used?A USDA tag applied to unacceptable equipment or posted at facilities (inclds livestock pens examined ante mortem)
FSIS TAGS: US Retained when is this tag used? Where is it placed?A USDA tag applied to unacceptable meat, poultry &/or meat-poultry containing products. The tags are placed 1 each to the head, carcass, viscera & 1 is kept for reference by the USDA. Individual examinations of each animal both in motion & at rest are required except for poultry where an individual examination of every bird is not practical or possible
Retained vs Suspect vs CondemnedRetained: Carcass that needs to be inspected by vet
Suspect: Live animal (ante-mortem) kept in a pen to be inspected (usually slaughtered end of day to avoid contamination of the abattoir)
Condemned: No go – Toss it

Ante-mortem Inspection

Question Answer
5 major species are inspected at ante-mortem...what are they?Sheep/Goat
(Horse not currently)
What’s unique about equine ante-mortem inspection?Observation from a 48" walkway for inspector safety & detection of "fistulous withers" & "poll evil" is necessary (Zoonotic risk - Brucellosis)
When should ante-mortem inspection be conducted?On the day they will be slaughtered (Such inspections must be made in pens on the premises of the establishment or in specific pens in stockyards assigned to the establishment)
Explain Inspectors vs. Veterinarians in antemortem inspectionInspectors: Segregates ‘Suspects’
Veterinarians: Make the final disposition on condemning an animal
What are the 3 options of assessing an animal ante-mortem(1) Suspect (In exam of suspect livestock the PHV must take the animal’s temp)
(2) Condemn
(3) Pass
*What are the 4 objectives of Ante-mortem Inspection?(1) Removing from human food, animals having conditions which cannot be detected on routine postmortem inspection (ie: Displaying neuro signs due to Rabies, heavy metal poisonings, CNS lesions, etc)
(2) Obtaining information on suspect animals for sound postmortem carcass
(3) Preventing unnecessary contamination of the slaughtering area by dzd animals by withholding from slaughter animals exhibiting abnormal conditions that make them unfit for human food
(4) Cooperation w/ animal dz control agencies (TB reactors, Brucellosis reactors, etc)
What are some conditions of an animal detected ante-mortem which would result in condemnation?Rabies
Heavy metal poisoning
CNS lesions
Can you cook a BSE cow to make it safe?Cooking food does NOT destroy infectivity of BSE agent
In examination of suspect livestock the Public health veterinarian (PHV) must...Take the animals rectal temp
**RECTAL TEMP → CONDEMN ante-mortem IF AT OR ABOVE _________ FOR CATTLE, SWINE, SHEEP, HORSE?COW, Sheep, Horse: 105⁰ F (5 riding on a cow, horse & sheep)
***SWINE: 106⁰ F (bc 6 is a pig of a man)
What is something that can happen in pigs to cz their temp to raise?Excitement
What’s a cz of elevated temp & what will be the sign in the carcass?Heatstroke & when the animal is slaughtered before cooling, the carcass may exhibit varying degrees of inadequate bleeding


Question Answer
If an animal has an elevated temp, what happens?The PHV should hold the animal for a 24-hour observation then re-evaluate it
If after 24hr the animal's temp is still elevated, what are the options?(1) Tx (wait for recovery including drug withdrawal times)
(2) Condemn
What’s a big reason an animal might be considered "suspect" at antemortem inspection?Temperatures indicating pyrexia (horse/cattle/sheep - 105⁰ F Swine - 106⁰ F)
General signs at Ante-mortem that indicate an animal is unfit for human food? (3)(1) Abnormal body movement
(2) Abnormal body condition
(3) Abnormal signs on body surface
What should you know about downer animals for slaughter?Non-ambulatory animals should never end up at Federal facility (but they do all the time)
What is the way to tell if an animal is moribund (very near death) & what should you know about them in terms of slaughtering?Any livestock w/ a rectal temperature of 96⁰ F or less is a dying animal. These animals should never be slaughtered for human food
What should you know about preg animals & slaughter?In the act of parturition = cannot be sent to slaughter until they have given birth
If an eye is missing from the animal, what should you do?Put in suspect pen for epithelioma (cancer eye)
If an animal is emaciated, can you use it for food & why?No, unfit for food bc: mm wasting, low fat content, Acetonaemic scent to meat
Most common neoplasm of cattle found at slaughter?Cancer eye (Squamous Cell carcinoma of the eye)
If an animal has cancer eye, when would it be considered condemned? (2 situations)(1) It involves the osseous structures of the head w/ extensive infxn, suppuration & necrosis
(2) If there is metastasis from the eye or the orbital region to lymph nodes, internal organs, muscles, skeleton or other structures regardless of the extent of the 1° tumor
**Actinomycosis/Actinobacillosis → if an animal is infected w/ this, can they be slaughtered & why?Usually will be Initially passed as “suspect” on ante-mortem. In most cases, only the head will be condemned on postmortem inspection (since wooden tongue & lumpy jaw are usually only local involvement of the head)
When will an Actinobacillosis (A. lignieresii) carcass be condemned?If lung involved, then entire carcass condemned. (If only tongue & LNs/neck involved, pass carcass but condemn the head)
What are some abnormal signs on the body surface that indicate an animal is unfit for human food?Injuries & fractures
Abnormal growths/swellings (Actinomycosis (lumpy jaw-mandible)
Actinobacillosis (Wooden tongue)

Abnormal enlargements (abscesses, hernias)
Abnormalities of skin, mucous membranes (signs of FMD, orf, injxn sites)
Abnormal bodily discharges (nasal discharge, excessive salivation (ptyalism), diarrhea, pus)
What kinda injected substances have withdrawal times?Vx, ABx!

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