VPH- Midterm 1

kelseyfmeyer's version from 2015-09-27 20:53

Agencies and HACCP stuff

Question Answer
which agency approves slaughter facilities; regulates labeling?USDA (dept agriculture)
which agency is for human food safety; including making sure imported seafood is safe/labeledFDA-DHHS (dept human health and services)
(this is under FYI but she asked this in class) what is Scombroid poisoning?happens when you eat spoiled fish...get rashes and such because causes release of histamine (think tuna)
which dept has responsibility for safety of human food supply in regards to seafood, SHELL eggs, milk?DHHS
which agency is for regulating drugs(residues), animal products/feeds + their labels?FDA-CVM (Center for Veterinary Medicine)
which agency regulates for biologics (vaccines, diagnostics)USDA-APHIS ( Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection )
which agency is for meat/poultry inspection and egg product; catfish?USDA-FSIS (food safety and inspection services)
which agency regulates environmental contamination of meat with pesticides; work with FDA + FSIS to correct?EPA (environmental protection agency)
** WHO Oversees Federal meat and poultry Inspection?FSIS!!! (food safety and inspection services)
**who has Authority over the approval and use of veterinary biologics (Vaccines, diagnostic tests) in animals?USDA-APHIS (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service)
**who has has the broad responsibility for assuring safety of the human food supply?FDA (food and drug administration)
who is federal agency that conducts and supports health promotion, prevention and preparedness activities in the United States with the goal of improving overall public healthCDC (centers for dz control)
what is HACCP?Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points
what is the HACCP designed to do?HACCP ( Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) is a systematic preventive approach to food safety to identify and prevent physical, chemical, & biological hazards in food before it becomes a finished product.
what should you know about importation of meat from other countries?meat & poultry can only be imported from countries which have a national inspection program for their exporting plants equal to the U.S. program (90% of the U.S. meat/poultry imports>Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Denmark)
Is HACCP for food safety, or quality?SAFETY--> it is a PREVENTATIVE approach
what is a GMP, what is a SOP, and are they about safety or quality?QUALITY of food--> GMP: Good Manufacturing Practices. SOP: Standard Operating Procedure
(not sure if important) what are the 7 principals of the HACCP?Conduct a hazard analysis. Identify critical control points (CCP). Establish critical limits for each CCP. Establish CCP monitoring requirements. Establish corrective actions. Establish record keeping procedures. Verification of HACCP.
what is a CCP? (define and explain)Critical Control Point. is a point, step, or procedure in a food manufacturing process at which a control can be applied and a food safety hazard prevented, eliminated, or reduced to acceptable levels.
what's a critical limit?A critical limit is the maximum or minimum value to which a physical, biological, or chemical hazard must be controlled at a critical control point to prevent, eliminate, or reduce to an acceptable level.
what can you use to kill pathogens on heads and carcasses at slaughter? what must not contaminate the carcass? (beef)2% conc lactic acid, no feces or milk can contaminate
(not sure if important) 5 steps to prevent the occurrence of residue violations in livestock or poultry at Federal slaughter plants are?(1) Confirm producer history (2) Buy residue-free animals (3) ID of animals for traceback (4) Inform FSIS of producer info re: residues (5) Notify producers if they violate FDA tolerances
what's a SRM?specified risk material
two exemptions to the wholesome meat act?(1) custom slaughter (for owner family and non-paying guests, exempt from inspection. must be stamped not for sale) (2) farm slaughter (By law, carcasses or edible by-products from animals slaughtered on the farm without inspection CANNOT be sold or traded)
what's a custom slaughter facility and what regulation is there on product from these?State licensed slaughter facility that does not have a state or federal inspector on duty. Custom slaughter operations slaughter or process uninspected meat for persons, usually farmers, that contract them to slaughter or process an animal for their own personal use. The meat is cut, packaged, and labeled “not for sale.”
explain Principle 1 of HACCP: Conduct a hazard analysisPlants determine the food safety hazards and identify the preventive measures they can apply to control these hazards. The hazard could be biological, chemical, or physical origin.
explain principal 2 of HACCP: Identify critical control pointsA Critical Control Point (CCP) is a point, step, or procedure in a food manufacturing process at which control can be applied and, as a result, a food safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to an acceptable level.
explain Principle 3 of HACCP: Establish critical limits for each critical control pointA critical limit is the maximum or minimum value to which a physical, biological, or chemical hazard must be controlled at a critical control point to prevent, eliminate, or reduce to an acceptable level.
explain Principle 4 of HACCP: Establish critical control point monitoring requirements.To ensure that the process is under control at each critical control point. In the United States, the FSIS is requiring that each monitoring procedure and its frequency be listed in the HACCP plan.
explain Principle 5 of HACCP: Establish corrective actions.To ensure that no product injurious to health or otherwise adulterated as a result of the deviation enters commerce
explain Principle 6 of HACCP: Establish record keeping procedures.The HACCP regulation requires that all plants maintain certain documents, including its hazard analysis and written HACCP plan. The FSIS requires that federally-inspected establishments that slaughter cattle must implement, and maintain written procedures for the removal of SRMs (specified risk materials) in their establishments and incorporate this into their HACCP procedures.
explain Principle 7 of HACCP: Establish procedures for ensuring the HACCP system is working as intended. Verification ensures the HACCP plan is adequate, that is, working as intended. FSIS is requiring that the HACCP plan include verification tasks to be performed by plant personnel. Verification tasks would also be performed by FSIS inspectors. Both FSIS and industry will undertake microbial testing as one of several verification activities.
FSIS TAGS: US Rejected - when is this tag used?A USDA tag applied to unacceptable equipment or posted at facilities (includes livestock pens examined ante mortem).
FSIS TAGS: US Retained - when is this tag used? Where is it placed?A USDA tag applied to unacceptable meat, poultry and/or meat- poultry containing products. The tags are placed 1 each to the head, carcass, viscera, and 1 is kept for reference by the USDA
retained vs suspect vs condemnedretained: carcass that needs to be inspected by vet. Suspect: kept in a pen ante-mortem needs to be inspected (usually slaughtered end of day to avoid contamination of the abattoir). Condemned- no go.

Ante-mortem Inspection

Question Answer
5 major species are inspected at ante-mortem...what are they?sheep, goat, pig, cattle, poultry. (horse not currently)
what's unique about equine ante-mortem inspection?observation from a 48" walkway for inspector safety and detection of "fistulous withers" and "poll evil" is necessary. (zoonotic risk- brucellosis)
when should ante-mortem inspection be conducted?on the day they are slaughtered (Such inspections must be made in pens on the premises of the establishment or in specific pens in stockyards assigned to the establishment.)
explain Inspectors vs. Veterinarians in antemortem inspectionInspectors segregate ‘Suspects’. Veterinarians make the final disposition on Condemning an animal
what are the three options of assessing an animal ante-mortem(1) suspect (In examination of suspect livestock the Public health veterinarian (PHV) must take the animal’s temperature) (2) condemn (3) pass
*what are the 4 Objectives of Ante-mortem Inspection?(1) Removing from human food those animals having conditions which cannot be detected on routine postmortem inspection. For example, animals displaying neurological signs due to rabies, heavy metal poisonings, CNS lesions, etc (2) Obtaining information on suspect animals for sound postmortem carcass (3) Preventing unnecessary contamination of the slaughtering area by diseased animals by withholding from slaughter animals exhibiting abnormal conditions that make them unfit for human food. (4) Cooperation with animal disease control agencies, i.e., TB reactors, brucellosis reactors, etc.
what are some conditions of an animal detected ante-mortem which would result in condemnation?rabies, listeriosis, scrapie, BSE, heavy metal poisoning, CNS lesions
can you cook a BSE cow to make it safe?Cooking food does NOT destroy infectivity of BSE agent
In examination of suspect livestock the Public health veterinarian (PHV) must...take the animals rectal temp
** RECTAL TEMP--> CONDEMN ante-mortem IF AT OR ABOVE _________ FOR CATTLE, SWINE, SHEEP, HORSE?COW: 105.0 (five riding on a cow), then sheep and horse also 105, but SWINE is 106 (because 6 is a pig of a man)
what is something that can happen in pigs to cause their temp to raise?excitement
what's a cause of elevated temp, and what will be the sign in the carcass?Heatstroke - and when the animal is slaughtered before cooling, the carcass may exhibit varying degrees of inadequate bleeding.
if an animal tests for an elevated temp, what happens?the Vet should hold the animal for a 24-hour observation then re-temperature it.
if after 24hr the animal's temp is still elevated, what are the options?(1) tx, wait for recovery including drug withdrawl times (2) condemn
what's a big reason an animal might be considered "suspect" at antemortem inspection?Temperatures indicating pyrexia-by species (horse/cattle/sheep- 105*. Swine-106*)
General signs at Ante - mortem that indicate an animal is unfit for human food? (3)(1) Abnormal body movement (2) Abnormal body condition (3) Abnormal signs on Body surface
what should you know about downer animals for slaughter?non-ambulatory-should never end up at Federal facility
what is the way to tell if an animal is moribund (very near death) and what should you know about them in terms of slaughtering?any livestock with a rectal temperature of 96* F or less is a dying animal. It is never recommended that these animals be slaughtered for human food.
what should you know about preg animals and slaughter?In the act of parturition-cannot be sent to slaughter until they have given birth
if an eye is missing from the animal, what should you do?put in suspect pen for epithelioma (cancer eye)
if an animal is emaciated, can you use it for food, and why?no, unfit for food because: mm wasting, low fat content, Acetonaemic scent to meat
Most common neoplasm of cattle found at slaughter?cancer eye (Squamous Cell carcinoma of the eye)
if an animal has cancer eye, when would it be considered condemned? (2 situations)(1) It involves the osseous structures of the head with extensive infection, suppuration and necrosis (2) If there is metastasis from the eye or the orbital region to lymph nodes, internal organs, muscles, skeleton or other structures regardless of the extent of the primary tumor.
Actinomycosis/actinobacillosis--> if an animal is infected with this, can they be slaughtered and why?Usually will be Initially passed as “suspect” on ante-mortem, and, In most cases, only the head will be condemned on postmortem inspection (since this is wooden tongue and lumpy jaw and usually only local involvement of the head)
when will an Actinobacillosis (A. lignieresii) carcass be condemned?If lung involved, then entire carcass condemned. (if only tongue and LNs/beck involved, pass without head)
what are some Abnormal signs on Body surface that indicate an animal is unfit for human food?Injuries and fractures, Abnormal growths, swellings (Actinomycosis (lumpy jaw-mandible), Actinobacillosis (Wooden tongue) ), Abnormal enlargements (abscesses,hernias), Abnormalities of skin, mucous membranes (signs of FMD, orf, injection sites), Abnormal bodily discharges (nasal discharge,excessive salivation (ptyalism), diarrhoea, pus)
what kinda injected substances have withdrawl times?vx, abx!

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