VPH- Final 5

untimely's version from 2015-04-27 05:45

RABIES lecture 1

Question Answer
Live canary pox vectored vaccine is for who?cats
inactivated rabies virus vx is for who?dogs
live vaccinia vectored vaccine is for use in who?wildlife (coyotes, raccoon)
earliest they can be vx for rabies?3mo
triennially means...every 3 years
earliest vx? boosters? after that? (in general)3mo, 1 year later, then triennially (3 years later)
How soon after first vaccination is the animal considered protected?28d
How long after the first rabies vaccination is a dog, cat or ferret considered to be protected against rabies?28d
agent of rabies?Rhabdoviridae virus (there are different variants in different areas, but they are all are rabies) (These variants can be identified with Mabs and PCR technology)
what's Terrestrial rabies?variant maintained in a terrestrial sp
what's non-terrestrial rabies?BAT RABIES
#1 transmitter to humans WORLDWIDE is?dog (Enzootic Canine rabies)
what is the trend between total rabies, wildlife rabies, and domestic animal rabies in the USA?domestic is decreased, but the total # and wildlife #s follow each other
how did the canine rabies vx program in the US affect rabies overall?also markedly reduced endogenously acquired human rabies in the U.S.
*How does vx domestic animals protect us beyond just from bites from domestic animals?Vaccinated domestic animals are an effective barrier between wildlife reservoirs and human exposure.
*Increases in rabies cases in wildlife reservoirs can be associated with increases in...domestic animal rabies cases.
Compartmentalization of rabies variants can be due to what two factors?Geographic region, Mammalian species reservoir
what is the Flagstaff rabies virus variant in Arizona and what does it show us?It is A newly recognized bat associated rabies variant now circulating in skunk and fox in Arizona. Indicates cross‐species transmission of unprecedented magnitude! *cross species and not just a bat infecting a fox/raccoon, because they are transmitting fox-fox and coon-coon INDEPENDENT of bats, even though it is a bat variant!! **first time bat rabies virus variant established in a terrestrial animal species.
oral rabies vx used for wildlife dont work on who?skunk
how many variants responsible for dz in skunk?4 (Northern CA, North central states, South central state, Flagstaff variant in Arizona)
how many variants responsible for dz in raccoon?1
*what is spillover?Infection from the reservoir species to another animal species. Sporadic, rarely initiates sustained intraspecific transmission in the new host species
**Rabies cases in domestic and terrestrial wild animals are associated with the viral variant specific to the particular.....?terrestrial wild animal cycle in the area.
*how common are spillover infections linked to secondary transmission of rabies to other animals/humans?UNCOMMONLY, but rabies Control operates on the premise that secondary transmission can occur.
is rabies reportable?Reportable in all species in all states
*reported cases of rabies reflect what kind of surveillance?Reflect Passive surveillance (they are not going out and getting random samples)
if there is suddenly emergence of rabies in a population in a location never seen before, and you need to know what happened, what can you do?look at the varient by isolating it-- tells you who/where it came from!
Raccoons present a bigger risk for human exposure than skunks or foxes. Why???Raccoons co-exist with people/pets in urban, suburban, and rural areas.
which rabies vx is used to try to curb rabies in WILD animal populations, esp. raccoons?live vaccinia‐vectored vaccine
explain the live vaccinia‐vectored vaccine...what is it used for? how does it work?used for wildlife innoculation. Use vaccinia virus which is alive (rabies is NOT ALIVE) and put in one little protein from the rabies virus into the vaccinia virus. This modified vaccinia virus carrying the rabies protein can infect the raccoon, wont hurt them too bad, but create an immune response to the vaccinia virus AND The rabies protein-- meaning the animal's immune system will have Abs against rabies protein if they are ever exposed
what's ONRAB?living Adenovirus with the rabies glycoprotein gene inserted. (Bait: ‘ultralite bait matrix’) (AdeNO ON)
what is RABORAL?Original ORV which is a living Vaccinia virus with rabies GP gene inserted. (Bait: Fish meal.)
what is the only terrestrial reservoir or rabies in europe?fox
rabies reservoir in europe?fox
do Rodents and lagomorphs have an independent cycle of rabies?no
Rodents and lagomorphs--> Susceptible to rabies but rabies rarely diagnosed in these species. WHY???not testing them, theyre just out there dying, they are killed when initially attacked by rabid agressor

RABIES lecture 2

Question Answer
how often is bat rabies transmitted to terrestrial mammals?Rarely
where in the world is rabies maintained in bats?ONLY in the Americas
how does rabies affect the carrier bats?NOT ASYMPTOMATIC! Bats with rabies die
what is the bat cycle of rabies like?it is An independent cycle from terrestrial wildlife cycle
what is the main cause of rabies in the US in HUMANS?BAT rabies!! (we elim. dog rabies with vx)
What factor determines if there will be rabies in domestic animals in the us...which factor doesnt matter?If in whatever state, if have terrestrial rabies, have rabies in domestic animal. if only rabies in bats, none in domestic animals
how is bat rabies usually transmitted to humans?BITES!!! non-bites is VERY rare
if a bat bites someone but there is no apparent bite, what should you do?START EXPOSURE THERAPY!! even if its super superficial or you don't see it, can still be enough to transmit rabies
explain the “Bat in the bedroom” policyIf person in room with a bat and unconscious, person considered exposed to rabies if the bat tests positive.
will population reduction help with wildlife rabies?nope
If you are going to be using a live vaccinia virus-vectored rabies vx, what should you be careful of?VACCINIA VIRUS CAUSES DZ IN PPL. try to put it away from where ppl will get at it
which DOMESTIC animal gets the most rabies?cats
why are there fewer dog cases than cat cases of rabies?dogs are More likely to be vaccinated, and More likely to be confined at night
what are some reasons there could be an animal that was vx but got rabies anyway? (4)(1) Improper handling/administration of vaccine (2) Inaccurate records (3) Immunocompromised when vaccinated (4) exposed to rabies shortly before or shortly
if there is a domestic animal with rabies, what varient does it probably have?Viral variant reflected the terrestrial wild animal variant in the area.
**what is the avg time from onset of signs to death?3 days!!! (rabies is a RAPIDLY PROGRESSING neuro dz!)
what is the second most frequent animal to be dz with rabies?cattle
what is the The Milwaukee protocol, and what should you know about it?If human gets rabies and develops signs, you can try this protocol by inducing a coma and admin antivirals. VARIABLE success
what is the incubation period?Exposure to onset of clinical signs. (could be weeks to months...depends)
the incubation period is the basis for...Bases for management of domestic animals exposed to possible rabid animals. IE, Bases for 6 month “strict isolation” of Unvaccinated dogs, cats, ferrets exposed to known or suspected rabid animal
***WHEN do you do the 6 month isolation period on animals exposed to known or suspected rabid animal?6mo isolation is when the animal is UNVX and ALSO NO HUMAN EXPOSURE INVOLVED
in domestic animals, what is the max incubation period of the rabies virus?MAX 6mo (and this is a conservatively high number)
in WILD animals, what is the max incubation period of the rabies virus?we have no idea. so we don't know how long to confine for isolation
all approved vx for DOMESTIC animals are what kind, except for what exception?all are inactivated (killed) EXCEPT for the canary pox virus vectored rabies vx for cats
when can you give the canary pox virus vectored rabies vx for cats?8 weeks!! (most other things are 3mo)
If a healthy, UNVACCINATED domestic cat/dog is bit by a suspected or known rabid animal, what is the protocol? (NO HUMAN EXPOSURE)TWO options. (1) Euthanize (2) strict isolation for 6 months and vaccinate UPON ENTRY or 1 MONTH BEFORE RELEASE
when do you vx a dog in strict isolation?upon entry or 1 month before release (1 mo before bc takes 28 days to work)
If a healthy, VACCINATED domestic cat/dog is bit by a suspected or known rabid animal, what is the protocol? (NO HUMAN EXPOSURE)revaccinate immediately, kept under owner’s control and observe for 45 days
If a dog is vaccinated upon entry into a 6 month isolation, why is this done?to protect against FUTURE exposures, provided they are not already rabid and going to die. This is not a post-exposure vx
2 days ago an unvaccinated dog is bitten by a skunk which tests positive for rabies. The dog is euthanized. Do you submit the brain of the dog for rabies testing??NO, it's not gonna move that fast to the brain
Unvaccinated cat brings home a bat. The bat tests “+“ for rabies. Cat is put into strict isolation. 3 weeks later the cat develops sign compatible with rabies. What is recommended regarding the cat?Euthanize the cat and test its brain for rabies virus (check brain just in case someone interacted with the cat)
*If during the 6 month quarantine the animal begins to show signs compatable with rabies, what do you do?Euthanize and check the brain for rabies-- anyone who was exposed needs to know
*what test on the brain to check for rabies?direct FA test
If VACCINATED LIVESTOCK is exposed to a rabid or potentially rabid animal, what do you do?revx and observe for 45 days
If UNVACCINATED LIVESTOCK is exposed to a rabid or potentially rabid animal, what do you do?two options: (1) Home slaughtered/ euthanize immediately (2) CLOSE OBSERVATION for 6mo
can you eat a cow that was bit by a rabid animal?DEPENDS-- if the cow was slaughtered within 7 days of being bit, it can be eaten without risk of infection, provided areas that were bit were exposed. (ppl can eat healthy animals, and if just bitten, is healthy bc doesnt have clinical rabies)
*Federal meat inspectors must do what about exposed animals?Federal meat inspectors must reject any animal known to be exposed to rabies within last 8 months.
if there is a RABID cow, what should you know about the tissues and milk?Neither tissues nor milk from a rabid animal should be used for human or animal consumption. NOTE: if you pasturize the milk it kills the rabies
can a herbivore give another herbivore rabies?VERY RARELY
if a different animal (not a cat/dog/ferret/livestock) is bitten by a rabid animal, what do you do?ONLY can euthanize-- we don't know the incubation period
Is there an approved rabies vaccine for wolf-dog hybrids?no
If a wolf-dog hybrid is bit by a rabid animal, what do you do as a vet? (if they bit a ppl? if they were just exposed?)do not vaccinate (no approved vx), if bit human, euthanize and test regardless (don't know shedding period), if exposed, euthanize.
Which domestic animals most likely to bite humans? Which domestic animals most likely to have rabies?DOGS AND CATS for both answers
when do dogs/cats/ferrets shed the rabies virus?Virus shed AT MOST 10 days before onset of signs and during clinical signs..... Usually in saliva 1-3 days before and during clinical signs
if a HEALTHY vaccinated animal bites a human, what do you do?since healthy, concerned about shedding prior to clinical signs. because they shed up to 10 days before clinical signs, you observe them for 10 days. If they don't show signs within ten days, then the human was not at risk for being exposed, even if 4 months down the line the animal develops rabies, because it wasn't shedding when the person was bit
if a HEALTHY UNvaccinated animal bites a human, what do you do?same as vaccinated, because it's the human we're concerned about here, so, since healthy, concerned about shedding prior to clinical signs. because they shed up to 10 days before clinical signs, you observe them for 10 days. If they don't show signs within ten days, then the human was not at risk for being exposed, even if 4 months down the line the animal develops rabies, because it wasn't shedding when the person was bit
if an animal bites a human, is put into 10 day isolation, and then develops signs of rabies, what do you do?euthanized and brain submitted for testing

Recent badges