VPH - Final 5

drraythe's version from 2016-04-24 18:45

RABIES Lecture 1

Question Answer
Live Canary Pox vectored Vx is for who?Cats
Inactivated Rabies Virus Vx is for who?Dogs
Live Vaccinia vectored Vx is for use in who?Wildlife (coyotes, raccoon)
*Earliest an animal can be Vx for Rabies?3 mo
Triennially means...Every 3 yrs
Earliest Vx? Boosters? After that? (In general)3mo, 1 yr later, then triennially (3 yrs later)
*How soon after 1st Vx is the animal considered protected?28d
How long after the 1st Rabies Vx is a dog, cat or ferret considered to be protected against Rabies?28d
Agent of Rabies?Rhabdoviridae virus (there are different variants in different areas, but they are all are Rabies) (These variants can be identified w/ Mabs & PCR technology)
What’s Terrestrial Rabies?Variant maintained in a terrestrial sp
What’s non-terrestrial Rabies?BAT RABIES
#1 transmitter to humans WORLDWIDE is?Dogs (Enzootic Canine Rabies)
What is the trend btwn total Rabies, wildlife Rabies & domestic animal Rabies in the USA?Domestic is low, but the total & wildlife follow each other
How did the canine Rabies Vx program in the US affect Rabies overall?Markedly reduced endogenously acquired human Rabies in the U.S.
*How does Vx domestic animals protect us beyond just from bites from domestic animals?Vxd domestic animals are an effective barrier btwn wildlife reservoirs & human exposure
*↑ in Rabies cases in wildlife reservoirs can be associated w/ ↑ in...Domestic Animal Rabies cases
Compartmentalization of Rabies variants can be due to what 2 factors?Geographic region
Mammalian species reservoir
**What is the Flagstaff Rabies virus variant in Arizona & what does it show us?It is a newly recognized bat associated Rabies variant now circulating in skunk & fox in Arizona. Indicates cross‐species xmission of unprecedented magnitude! *Cross species & not just a bat infecting a fox/raccoon, bc they are xmitting fox-fox & coon-coon INDEPENDENT of bats, even tho it is a bat variant!!
1st time bat Rabies virus variant established in a terrestrial animal species
Oral Rabies Vx used for wildlife dont work on who?Skunk
How many variants responsible for dz in skunk?4 (Northern CA, North Central States, South Central States, Flagstaff Variant in Arizona)
How many variants responsible for dz in raccoon?1
*What is spillover?Infxn from the reservoir species to another animal species. Sporadic, rarely initiates sustained intraspecific xmission in the new host species
**Rabies cases in domestic & terrestrial wild animals are associated w/ the viral variant specific to the particular.....?Terrestrial wild animal cycle in the area
*How common are spillover infxns linked to 2° xmission of Rabies to other animals/humans?UNCOMMONLY, but Rabies Control operates on the premise that 2° xmission can occur
Is Rabies reportable?Reportable in all species in all states
*Reported cases of Rabies reflect what kind of surveillance?Reflect Passive surveillance (they are not going out & getting random samples)
If there is suddenly emergence of Rabies in a population in a location never seen before & you need to know what happened, what can you do?Look at the variant by isolating it - tells you who/where it came from!
Raccoons present a bigger risk for human exposure than skunks or foxes. Why???Raccoons co-exist w/ people/pets in urban, suburban & rural areas
Which Rabies Vx is used to try to curb Rabies in WILD animal populations, esp. raccoons?Live vaccine‐vectored Vx
Explain the live vaccinia‐vectored Vx...What is it used for? How does it work?Used for wildlife inoculation. Use vaccinia virus which is alive (Rabies is NOT ALIVE). They put in 1 little protein from the Rabies virus into the vaccinia virus. This modified vaccinia virus carrying the Rabies protein can infect the raccoon, won’t hurt them too bad, but create an immune response to the vaccinia virus & the Rabies protein - meaning the animal's immune system will have Abs against Rabies protein if they are ever exposed
What’s ONRAB?Living Adenovirus w/ the Rabies glycoprotein gene inserted (Bait: ‘ultralight bait matrix’) (AdeNO ON)
What is RABORAL?Original ORV which is a living Vaccinia virus w/ Rabies GP gene inserted (Bait: Fish meal)
What is the only terrestrial reservoir or Rabies in Europe?Fox
Rabies reservoir in Europe?Fox
Do rodents & lagomorphs have an independent cycle of Rabies?No
Rodents & lagomorphs → Susceptible to Rabies but Rabies rarely Dxd in these species. WHY???Not testing them, theyre just out there dying, they are killed when initially attacked by rabid aggressor

RABIES Lecture 2

Question Answer
How often is bat Rabies xmitted to terrestrial mammals?Rarely
Where in the world is Rabies maintained in bats?ONLY in the Americas
How does Rabies affect the carrier bats?NOT ASYMPTOMATIC! Bats w/ Rabies die
What is the bat cycle of Rabies like?It is an independent cycle from terrestrial wildlife cycle
What is the main cz of Rabies in the US in HUMANS?BAT Rabies!! (we elim. dog Rabies w/ Vx)
What factor determines if there will be Rabies in domestic animals in the us...which factor doesnt matter?If in whatever state, if have terrestrial Rabies, have Rabies in domestic animal. If only Rabies in bats, none in domestic animals
How is bat Rabies usually xmitted to humans?BITES!!! Non-bites is VERY rare
If a bat bites someone but there is no apparent bite, what should you do?START EXPOSURE THERAPY!! Even if it’s super superficial or you don't see it, can still be enough to transmit Rabies
Explain the “Bat in the bedroom” policyIf person in room w/ a bat & unconscious, person considered exposed to Rabies if the bat tests positive
Will population reduction help w/ wildlife Rabies?Nope
If you are going to be using a live vaccinia virus-vectored Rabies Vx, what should you be careful of?VACCINIA VIRUS CZS DZ IN PPL. Try to put it away from where ppl will get at it
Which DOMESTIC animal gets the most Rabies?Cats
Why are there fewer dog cases than cat cases of Rabies?Dogs are more likely to be vxd & More likely to be confined at night
What are some reasons there could be an animal that was Vx but got Rabies anyway? (4)(1) Improper handling/administration of Vx
(2) Inaccurate records
(3) Immunocompromised when vxd
(4) Exposed to Rabies shortly before or shortly after Vx
If there is a domestic animal w/ Rabies, what variant does it probably have?Viral variant reflected the terrestrial wild animal variant in the area
**What is the avg time from onset of signs to death?3 days!!! (Rabies is a RAPIDLY PROGRESSING neuro dz!)
What is the 2nd most frequent animal to be dz w/ Rabies?Cattle
What is the Milwaukee protocol & what should you know about it?If human gets Rabies & develops signs, you can try this protocol by inducing a coma & admin antivirals. VARIABLE success
What is the incubation period?Exposure to onset of CS. (could be weeks to months...depends)
The incubation period is the basis for...Bases for management of domestic animals exposed to possible rabid animals. IE, Bases for 6 month “strict isolation” of Unvxd dogs, cats, ferrets exposed to known or suspected rabid animal
***WHEN do you do the 6 month isolation period on animals exposed to known or suspected rabid animal?6mo isolation is when the animal is UNVX & ALSO NO HUMAN EXPOSURE INVOLVED
In domestic animals, what is the max incubation period of the Rabies virus?MAX 6mo (& this is a conservatively ↑ number)
In WILD animals, what is the max incubation period of the Rabies virus?We have no idea. So we don't know how long to confine for isolation
All approved Vx for DOMESTIC animals are what kind, except for what exception?All are inactivated (killed) EXCEPT for the canary pox virus vectored Rabies Vx for cats
When can you give the canary pox virus vectored Rabies Vx for cats?8 weeks!! (Most other things are 3mo)
**If a healthy, UNVXD domestic cat/dog is bit by a suspected or known rabid animal, what is the protocol? (NO HUMAN EXPOSURE)2 options
(1) Euthanize
(2) Strict isolation for 6 months & vaccinate UPON ENTRY or 1 MONTH BEFORE RELEASE
When do you Vx a dog in strict isolation?Upon entry or 1 month before release (1 mo. before bc takes 28 days to work)
**If a healthy, VXD domestic cat/dog is bit by a suspected or known rabid animal, what is the protocol? (NO HUMAN EXPOSURE)Revaccinate immediately, kept under owner’s control & observe for 45 days
If a dog is vxd upon entry into a 6 month isolation, why is this done?To protect against FUTURE exposures, provided they are not already rabid & going to die. This is not a post-exposure Vx
2 days ago an unvxd dog is bitten by a skunk which tests positive for Rabies. The dog is euthanized. Do you submit the brain of the dog for Rabies testing??NO, it's not gonna move that fast to the brain
Unvxd cat brings home a bat. The bat tests (+) for Rabies. Cat is put into strict isolation. 3 weeks later the cat develops sign compatible w/ Rabies. What is recommended regarding the cat?Euthanize the cat & test its brain for Rabies virus (check brain just in case someone interacted w/ the cat)
*If during the 6 month quarantine the animal begins to show signs compatible w/ Rabies, what do you do?Euthanize & check the brain for Rabies - anyone who was exposed needs to know
**What test on the brain to check for Rabies?Direct FA test
If VXD LIVESTOCK is exposed to a rabid or potentially rabid animal, what do you do?ReVx & observe for 45 days
If UNVXD LIVESTOCK is exposed to a rabid or potentially rabid animal, what do you do?2 options:
(1) Home slaughtered/ euthanize immediately
Can you eat a cow that was bit by a rabid animal?DEPENDS - if the cow was slaughtered w/in 7 days of being bit, it can be eaten w/o risk of infxn, provided areas that were bit were removed. (Ppl can eat healthy animals & if just bitten, is healthy bc doesnt have clinical Rabies)
*Federal meat inspectors must do what about exposed animals?Federal meat inspectors must reject any animal known to be exposed to Rabies w/in last 8 months
If there is a RABID cow, what should you know about the tissues & milk?Neither tissues nor milk from a rabid animal should be used for human or animal consumption. NOTE: if you pasteurize the milk it kills the Rabies, but better not to chance it
Can a herbivore give another herbivore Rabies?VERY RARELY
If a different animal (not a cat/dog/ferret/livestock) is bitten by a rabid animal, what do you do?ONLY can euthanize - we don't know the incubation period
Is there an approved Rabies Vx for wolf-dog hybrids?No
If a wolf-dog hybrid is bit by a rabid animal, what do you do as a vet? (If they bit a ppl? if they were just exposed?)Do not vaccinate (no approved Vx), if bit human, euthanize & test regardless (don't know shedding period), if exposed, euthanize
Which domestic animals most likely to bite humans? Which domestic animals most likely to have Rabies?DOGS & CATS for both answers
When do dogs/cats/ferrets shed the Rabies virus?Virus shed AT MOST 10 days before onset of signs & during CS..... Usually in saliva 1-3 days before & during CS
If a HEALTHY vxd animal bites a human, what do you do?Since healthy, concerned about shedding prior to CS. bc they shed up to 10 days before CS, you observe them for 10 days. If they don't show signs w/in 10 days, then the human was not at risk for being exposed, even if 4 months down the line the animal develops Rabies, bc it wasn't shedding when the person was bit
If a HEALTHY UNvxd animal bites a human, what do you do?Same as vxd, bc it's the human we're concerned about here, so, since healthy, concerned about shedding prior to CS. bc they shed up to 10 days before CS, you observe them for 10 days. If they don't show signs w/in 10 days, then the human was not at risk for being exposed, even if 4 months down the line the animal develops Rabies, bc it wasn't shedding when the person was bit
If an animal bites a human, is put into 10 day isolation & then develops signs of Rabies, what do you do?Euthanized & brain submitted for testing