eesohbel's version from 2015-08-05 21:09


Question Answer
Vitamin ARetinoic acid
B5Pantothenic acid
Vitamin CAscorbic acid
Vitamin DCholecalciferol
Vitamin EAlpha-Tocopherol
Fat soluble vitaminsA, D, E, K
Water solubleB1, B2, B3, B5, B6. B7, B9, B12, C


Question Answer
Retinoic acid (A) deficiencyXeropthalmia (no tears)
Night blindness
Keratomelicia (wrinkled clouded cornea)
Thiamine deficiencyBeriberi
- Dry: Partial paralysis
- Wet: CV (Increase HR, Vasodilation)
- Infantile: dyspnea + cyanosis + HF

Wernicke-Korsakoff (alcoholics!!)
- Occulomotor dysfunction (Nystagmus, Weak muscles)
- Ataxia
- Mental status change
- Memory loss (permanent damage)
Lesion to the mamillary bodies?Thiamine (B1) deficiency most commonly due to alcoholism
Riboflavin (B2) deficiencyStomatitis (sore throat, red tongue)
Skin rash
Birth defect
Niacin (B3) deficiencyPellagra (3D's: Diarrhea, Dermatitis, Dementia)
Pantothenic acid (B5) deficiencyChronic paresthesia (pins and needles)
Pyridoxine (B6) deficiencySeborrhoic dermatitis
Sideroblastic anemia
Atrophic glossitis (ulcers)
Neuro (somnolent, confused, neuropathy)
Biotin (B7) deficiencyHair loss
Folate (B9) deficiencyNeural tube defects
Anorexia/weight loss
Cobalamin (B12) deficiencyMegaloblastic anemia
Axonal degeneration (Myelin vacuolization of DCML, LCST, and peripheral nerves)
Ascorbic acid (C) deficiencyScurvy (bleeding, spongy gums, loose teeth, skin spots, malaise)
Cholecalciferol (D) deficiencyRicketts/Osteomalacia (Bone pain, Weak bones, Hypocalcemia)
Vitamin E deficiencyNeuromuscular (Degeneration of DCML and SCT, +Babinski)
Hemolytic anemia
Vitamin K deficiencyClotting disorder (activates CF II, VII, IX, X, protein C+s,) [high PT]
Retinoic acid (A) overloadPseudotumor cerebri (Idiopathic increased ICP, usually fat girls)
Hepatic toxicity/enlargement
Dry skin
Retinoic acid (A) as a TeratogenSpontaneous abortion
Craniofacial malformations
CNS abnormalities
Heart abnormalities
HomocysteinuriaB6 or B12 deficiency
How does B12 deficiency cause Homocysteinuria?Cofactor for Homocysteine → Methionine. Results in megaloblastic anemia
How does B6 (pyridoxine) deficiency cause Homocysteinuria?(MC) Cofactor for conversion of Homocysteine →Cystathionine → Cysteine
Colicky pain, Blue pigment, Wrist/foot drop, Microcytic anemiaLead poisoning
Symptoms of vitamin E deficiencyneurologic may appear similar to B12, but no megaloblastic anemia
Vitamin C is necessary for hydroxylation of what amino acidsproline and lysine in collagen
Symptoms of Vitamin E overdosehemorrhagic stroke


Question Answer
Takes years to develop deficiencyCobalamin (B12). Body has stores.
Takes about 6 months to develop deficiencyVitamin A. Liver stores vitamin A.
Takes 3-4 months to develop deficiencyVitamin D. Fat stores D.
Produced by bacteria in large intestineVitamin K (rarely deficient from dietary intake
Deficiency happens with peeingWater soluble vitamines
Precursor of NAD+Nicotinic acid (B3)
Source of Niacin (B3)Diet: Grains, veggies, fuits, meat. Synthesized from Tryptophan!
Causes of niacin deficiencyHartnup disease (decreased tryptophan), isonazid, malignant carcinoid syndrome
Precursor to Vitamin ACarotene
Precursor to Niacin (B3)Tryptophan
Causes of B12 deficiencyDefective absorption in the Ileum:
- Achlorhydria: Gastric atrophy
- Ileal disease: IBS, Ileal resection
Bacterial overgrowth
Causes of Iron deficiencyIncreased demand
Blood loss
Insufficient intake
Sources of FolateFruits and Veggies!
Causes of Folate deficiencyInadequate intake
Decreased absorption
Increased demand
How do you replace B12?Parenteral because it usually happens due to defective absorption (Oral supplementation won't work)
Which drug causes Pyridoxine (B6) deficiency?Isoniazid: competes with B6 and increases urinary excretion Results in
Vitamin A is used for recovery from [?]Measles!!!
Faster recovery from pneumonia and diarrhea
Most common causes of Vitamin A deficiencycystic fibrosis, cholestatic liver disease, pancreatic insufficiency of intestinal malabsorption
Clinical presentation of vitamin C deficiencyscurvy, which is characterized by perifollicular hemorrhages, fragmentation of hairs, purpura, ecchymoses, splinter hemorrhages, gum changes and hemorrhages into muscle
How should thiamine and glucose be handled togetherNEVER give glucose before thiamine when treating Wernickes
Avitaminosis A can cause what type of metaplasiasquamous metaplasia epithelia to keratinizing epithelium
phototherapy causes deficiency of what vitaminriboflavin (B2)
what vitamin is a cofactor in amino acid transaminationB6
hydroxylation of proline and lysine occurs where/what vitaminrough ER and with vitamin C

Metabolic Biochemistry

Question Answer
riboflavin (B2) cofactor forsuccinate dehydrogenase reactions in the TCA cycle
B1 cofactor forpyruvate dehydrogenase, alpha ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, transketolase, branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase
B5essential component of coenzyme A, which binds with oxaloacetate in the first step of the Krebs cycle to make citrate
B7 (biotin)cofactor for pyruvate carbozylase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, propionyl CoA carboxylase

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