Vitamins & Minerals

tlladew's version from 2015-08-19 02:31


Question Answer
B1 NameThiamin (B1)
Funtion: Coenzyme of energy metabolism, Nerve membrane integrityThiamin (B1)
Diatary Source: Pork, whole grains, enriched grains, legumesThiamin (B1)
Deficiency causes Beriberi. Muscle weakness, wasting of lower extremities, heart failure, edemaThiamin (B1)
RDA or AI =1.1-1.12mgThiamin (B1)
B2 NameRiboflavin
Functions: Coenzyme of metabolismRiboflavin(B2)
Dietary Source: milk/milk products, enriched grains, meatRiboflavin(B2)
Deficiency: cracks at corner of mouth, sensitivity to lightRiboflavin(B2)
RDA or AI = 1.1-1.3 mgRiboflavin(B2)
B3 NameNiacin, Nicotinic Acid, Nicotinamide
Function: Coenzyme of eneergy metabolismNiacin(B3)
Dietary Source: protein foods, enriched grains, made from tryptophanNiacin(B3)
Deficiency: Pellagra: diarrhea, dementia, dermatitis, deathNiacin(B3)
Toxicity Symptoms: skin flushing, blurred vision, liver damageNiacin(B3)
RDA or AI = 14-16mgNiacin(B3)
Functions: Coenzyme involved in DNA synthesis, requires B12 to functionFolate
Dietary Source: enriched grains, gren vegetables, legumesFolate
Deficiency Symptoms: impaired cell division, megaloblastic anemia, neural tube defects(in infants)Folate
Toxicity Symptoms: masks B12 deficiency symptomsFolate
RDA or AI = 400 microgramsFolate
B12 NameCyanoco Balamin
Functions: coenzyme of folate metabolism, maintains sheath around nerves, new cell synthesisCyanoco Balamin(B12)
Dietary Source: only animal based foods, fortified breakfast cerealsCyanoco Balamin(B12)
Deficiency Symptoms: No IF leads to pernicious anemia, megaloblastic anemia, poor nerve functionCyanoco Balamin(B12)
B6 NamePyridoxal
Functions: amino acid metabolism, fat metabolism, makes hemoglobin for red blood cellsPyridoxal(B6)
Dietary Source: meat, potatoes, bananasPyridoxal(B6)
Deficiency Symptoms: rashes, scaly skin, depression, confusion, anemiaPyridoxal(B6)
Toxicity Symptoms: nerve damagePyridoxal(B6)
RDA or AI = 1.3-1.7 mgPyridoxal(B6)
RDA or AI= 2.4 microgramsCyanoco Balamin(B12)
Vitamin A Nameretinol
Functions: promotes vision, promotes cell division, suports sperm and fetal development, antioxidant, supports immune system, promotes growthVitamin A
Dietary Source: liver, fortified milk, cheeseVitamin A
Pro-vitamin A nameBeta carotene
Dietary Source: spinach, sweet potatoes, carrotsBeta carotene
Deficiency Symptoms: night blindness, xerophthalmia, keratinization, poor growth, poor immunityVitamin A
Toxicity Symptoms: Fetal malformations, liver failure, fractures.Vitamin A
RDA or AI= 700 micrograms for women, 900 micrograms for menVitamin A
Vitamin D NameCholecalciferol
Functions: promotes blood calcium levels, many target tissues Vitamin D
Dietary Source: (animal foods only) fortified milk, egg yolk, liver, fatty fish, sun exposureVitamin D
Deficiency: rickets in children, osteomalacia in adultsVitamin D
Toxicity: calcium deposits in soft tissue, kidney damageVitamin D
RDA or AI = 5-15 micrograms (200-600IU)Vitamin D
Vitamin E Nametocopherol
Functions: protects vitamin A and unsaturated fatty acids, decrease risk in heart disease, protects lungs from air pollution, helps immune functionVitamin E
Dietary Source: vegetable oils, nuts and seeds, whole grainsVitamin E
Deficiency: nerve degeneration, breaking of red cellsVitamin E
Toxicity: hemorrhageVitamin E
RDA or AI= 22 IU in natural, 33 IU in syntheticVitamin E
Vitamin K NamePhylloquinone, menaquinone
Functions:blood clotting, synthesis of bone proteins that bind to minerals like calciumVitamin K
Dietary Source: GI bacteria, Leafy green vegetables, cabbage, milkVitamin K
Deficiency: hemorrhage, skeletal weaknessVitamin K
Toxicity: reduced effectiveness in anticlotting medicines, jaundice, red blood cells breakingVitamin K
RDA or AI= 90-120 microgramsVitamin K
Function: structure of bones, teeth. in blood for: muscle contraction, nerve transmission, blood clotting, blood pressure regulationCalcium
Dietary Source: milk/milk products, soy milk, broccoli, fortified orange juice, fish with bonesCalcium
Deficiency: osteoporosis, ricketsCalcium
Function: bone and teeth structures, major buffer, part of DNA and RNA, role in metabolism, phospholipidsPhosphorous
Dietary Source: soft drinks, animal protein, legumes, dairy products, fishPhosphorous
Toxicity: from soft drinks: decreases calcium absorptionPhosphorous
Function: component of bones, important to enzymes, ATP metabolism, inhibits muscle contraction, inhibits blood clotting, prevents dental carries, protects against hypertensionMagnesium
Dietary Source: dark green foods, legumes, whole grains, nuts, chocolateMagnesium
Deficiency: weakness, muscle pain, poor heart functionMagnesium
Functions: principle cation with body cells, fluid/electrolyte balance, nerve transmission, muscle contraction, increase risk of hypertensionSodium
Dietary Source: processed foods(75% of intake), table salt, condiments, sauces, soupsSodium
Deficiency: muscle crampsSodium
Functions: principle cation in body cells, fluid/electrolyte balance, nerve transmission, muscle contractionPotassium
Dietary Source: fresh fruits/veggies, meat, milk, whole grainsPotassium
Deficiency: (rare) muscle weaknessPotassium
Functions: major anion outside body cells, fluid/electrolyte balance, hydrochloric acid in stomachChloride
Dietary Source: table salt, processed foods, some veggiesChloride
Functions: bridges in proteins, stabilizes protein shape, acid/bacse balanceSulfur
Dietary Source: all protein containing foodsSulfur
Functions: component of thyroid hormone, which regulates metabolic rate.Iodine (Trace mineral)
Deficiency: Goiter(enlarged thyroid), Cretinism(deficiency in mothers that causes irreversible retardation in baby).Iodine (trace mineral)
Dietary Source: iodized salt, seafood, ocean mist(world's major source)Iodine (Trace mineral)
Functions: part of hemoglobin and myoglobin which carry and release oxygenIron (trace mineral)
Forms of Iron: is found in plant/animal foods and is absorbed poorlyNon-heme
Forms of Iron: is found in animals and is better absorbed than the other form of iron.Heme
Absorption is increased by vitamin C and pregnancy/childhood.Iron (trace mineral)
Absorption is decreased by tannic acid, found in tea, coffee, and calciumIron (trace mineral)
Deficiency: Anemia-> low hemoglobin concentrationIron (trace mineral)
Toxicity: hemochromatosis( common genetic disorder. leading cause of accidental poisoning in kids)Iron (trace mineral)
Dietary Source: meat, fish, enriched grains/cereals, green leafy veggiesIron (trace minerals)
Functions: importnat in many enzymes, insulin, DNA/RNA, immune system, vitamin A, taste perception, wound healing, and sperm development.Zinc (trace mineral)
Deficiency: growth retardation, arrested sexual maturation, impaired immune function, brain function, thyroid, taste, wound healing, vitamin AZinc (trace mineral)
Dietary Source: shellfish, meats, poultry, liver, whole grainsZinc( trace mineral)
Functions: works as an antioxidant, makes thyroid hormone activeSelenium (trace mineral)
Deficiency: may increase risk for heart diseaseSelenium (trace mineral)
Dietary Source: meats and other animal products, whole grainsSelenium (trace mineral)
Functions: forms crystal structure of teethFluoride (trace mineral)
Deficiency: increased risk for dental cavities (most widespread health problem)Fluoride (trace mineral)
Toxicity: fluorisis (darkened teeth)Fluoride (trace mineral)
Dietary Source: drinking water ( 75% of US has access to this)Fluoride (trace mineral)
Functions: associated with insulin to facilitate glucose into cellsChromium (trace mineral)
Dietary Source: meat, egg yolks, whole grains, vegetable oils, nutsChromium (trace mineral)
Functions: helps form hemoglobin, collagen synthesis, works with many antioxidant enzymes.Copper (trace mineral)
Dietary Sources: legumes, whole grains, nuts, organ meats, seeds, dried fruitsCopper (trace mineral)
Fat Soluble VitaminsDEAK
Water Soluble VitaminsBC
Form of Vitamin ARetinoids
Form of Vitamin ACarotenoids
What are retinoidsPreformed Vit A
Type of retinoidretinal
Type of retinoidretinol
Type of retinoidretinoic acid
food sources, dark green, yellow, and orange veggies and fruitCarotenoid
turns visual light into nerve signals by the retinaVitamin A
What does light deplete?Rhodopsin
Conditional Vitamin or pro-hormoneVitamin D
Where is Vit D stored?fat cells
Stimulates active Vitamin Dparathyroid hormone
Vitamin D is transported bychrlomicrons
Calcitriol is the active form ofVitamin D
Functions: Calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, Bone Health, Immune functionVitamin D
Vitamin D mechanismcalcitriol
Poor status: Autoimmune diseases, cancer, and muscle weaknessVitamin D
Toxicity: Hypercalcemia: calcification of organsVitamin D
8 compoundsVitamin E
4 tocopherolsVitamin E
4 tocotrienolsVitamin E
Active form: Alpha tocopherolVitamin E
Transported via chylomicronsVitamin E
Synthesized by gut bacteriaVitamin K
Biologically active form of Vitamin Kphylloquinones
Synthetic form of Vitamin Kmenadione
Deficiency: Long term antibiotic use or fat malabsorptionVitamin K
Utilized in energy conversion, activated by digestioncoenzymes
Deficiency causes BeriberiThiamin
Co-enzymes (FAD,FMN) in energy metabolismRiboflavin (B2)
Heat stable vitaminNiacin
Function: Oxidation-reduction reactions. Co-enzymes: NAD, NADPHNiacin
Function: Energy metabolism: catabolism of carbs, fat, proteinNiacin
Pharmacological: Lowers triglycerides and raises HDLNiacin
Deficiency: 12 raw egg whites (avidin binds to protein)Biotin
Function: co-enzyme for carboxylation reactionsBiotin
Pharmacological: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, Nausea during pregnancyVitamin B6
Function: metabolism, Synthesis of heme, neurotransmitters, vitamins (synthesis of niacin from tryptophan)Vitamin B6
What is the vitamin used by coenzyme PLP in amino acid metabolism?Vitamin B6
supplement form of FolateFolic Acid
Storage in the liverVitamin B12
Symptoms: bleeding gums, loose teeth, skin hemorrhages/bruising, impaired wound/fracture healing, joint painScurvy
What are the Major Cations in intracellular fluid?Potassium K1
What are the Major Cations in intracellular fluid?Magnesium Mg2+
What are the major cations in extracellular fluid?Sodium Na+
What are the major cations in extracellular fluid?Calcium Ca2+
active transport adjusts electrolyte balance against a concentration gradient.Sodium Potassium Pump
What vitamin enhances calcium, phosphorus & magnesium absorption?Vitamin D
electrolyte promotes the excretion of sodiumPotassium
High intake lowers hypertensionPotassium
Most abundant mineral in the bodyCalcium
Function: regulator of chemical reactions, blood levels are strictly controlledCalcium
Absorbed by both active transport (vit D dependent) and passive diffusionCalcium