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Vitamins & Minerals

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sufuname's version from 2015-04-27 11:11

Section

Question Answer
B1 NameThiamin
Thiamin(B1) Funtionmetabolise CHO, correct nervous system functions
Thiamin(B1) Diatary SourcePork, whole grains, yeast, legumes
Thiamin (B1) DeficiencyBeriberi, retarted growth in children, enlarge heart muscle, cramping of calves
Thiamin (B1) ExcessShock
B2 NameRiboflavin
Riboflavin(B2) FunctionsMetabolise CHO and protein, healthy skin, eye health in cornea
Riboflavin(B2) Dietary Sourcemilk/milk products, wholegrain products, yeast, offal meat
Riboflavin(B2) Deficiencycracks at corner of mouth, disturbs nervous and digestive system, itchy eyes, inflamed tongue
Riboflavin (B2) Excessnone
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Section

Question Answer
B3 NameNiacin
Niacin(B3) Functionmetabolise CHO, healthy skin, correct nervous and digestive system functions
Niacin(B3) Dietary Sourceprotein foods (red meants/fish), whole grains, nuts legumes
Niacin(B3) DeficiencyPellagra, hindered rowth in children, loss of appetite and headaches, disturbances of digestive and nervous system
Niacin (B3) Excessincreased blood pressure, facial flushing
Folate Functionsmetabolise proteins, produce red blood cells with B12
Folate Dietary Sourcewhole grains, green leafy vegetables, milk, yeast, avocados
Folate Deficiency SymptomsAnaemia, neurological diseases, sterility in males and females
Folate ExcessVomiting and diarrhoea, undetected diff. in B12
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Section

Question Answer
B12 NameCobalamin
Cobalamin(B12) Functionscoenzyme of protein metabolism, maintains nerve tissue, formation of red blood cells in bone marrow.
Cobalamin(B12) Dietary Sourcemilk, milk products, seafood, eggs, bananas
Cobalamin(B12) Deficiency Symptomsanemia, poor nerve function, abnormal skin pigmentation.
Cobalamin(B12) excessnone
Vitamin A Functionspromotes vision, cell division, supports immune system, promotes growth in bones and teeth
Vitamin A Dietary Sourceliver, butter, milk, cheese, orange fruit and veg.
Vitamin A Deficiency Symptomsxerophthalmia, night blindness, dry skin.
Vitamin A Excessstored in liver, may become toxic, nausea, loss of appetite
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Section

Question Answer
Vitamin D Functionspromotes blood calcium levels and phosphorus in bones.
Vitamin D Dietary Sourcemilk, egg yolk, liver, fatty fish, sun exposure
Vitamin D Deficiencyrickets in children, osteomalacia in adults, poor tooth development and decay
Vitamin D Excesscalcium deposits in kidneys and lungs, kidney failure, toxicity, loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhoea.
Vitamin E Functionsprotects vitamin A and unsaturated fatty acids from O2,protect red blood cells, protect carcinogenic substances from forming in digestive system.
Vitamin E Dietary Sourcevegetable oils, nuts and seeds, whole grains, tuna, green veg
Vitamin E DeficiencyHaemolytic anaemia (red blood cells die quicker), reduced protection from carcinogenic substances in digestive system
Vitamin E ExcessMuscle weakness, nausea, disturbs the thyroid gland.
Vitamin C Functionsprevents sore bleeding gums, strong immune system, prevents depression, absorbs calcium and iron
Vitamin C Dietary SourceCitrus fruits, potatoes
Vitamin C DeficiencyWeak immune system, bleeding + sore gums, scurvy,
Vitamin C Excessoxalate stones in kidney
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Section

Question Answer
Vitamin K Functionsblood clotting, normal liver function.
Vitamin K Dietary SourceLeafy green vegetables, legumes, mushrooms, egss, liver
Vitamin K Deficiencyhemorrhage (infants), increased blood clotting time.
Vitamin K Excessnone
Calcium FunctionFormation of strong bones and teeth, Required for normal blood clotting, Contraction and relaxation of muscles
Calcium Dietary Sourcemilk/milk products, broccoli, almonds, most breads.
Calcium Deficiencycalcium from the skeleton (skeletal calcium) is reabsorbed to maintain ionised calcium (serum calcium). If this continues, bone loss occurs and in the long term, osteoporosis develops.
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Section

Question Answer
Sodium Functionsfluid/electrolyte balance, muscle contraction
Sodium Dietary Sourceprocessed foods(75% of intake), table salt, condiments, sauces, soups
Sodium Deficiencymuscle cramps, vom, lethargy. Deff. short time after exercise
Sodium ExcessHigh blood pressure (hypertension), Fluid retention (oedema), Kidney and Heart failure, Reduced calcium absorption
Potassium Functionsfluid/electrolyte balance, steady heart beat, muscle contraction
Potassium Dietary Sourcefresh fruits/veggies, meat, milk, bananas
Potassium Deficiency(rare) muscle weakness, irregular heart beat, more likely in rapid loss ( dehydration, prolonged vom, diarhoea)
Potassium Excessnone unless excessive supplementation
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Section

Question Answer
Iodine Functionscomponent of 2 thyroid hormone, which regulates metabolic rate.
Iodine DeficiencyGoiter(enlarged thyroid), Cretinism(deficiency in mothers that causes irreversible retardation in baby).
Iodine Dietary Sourceiodized salt, seafood, bread, dairy
Iodine ExcessEnlargement of the thyroid gland, During pregnancy, excessive exposure is damaging to the foetus
Iron Functionspart of hemoglobin and myoglobin which carry and release oxygen
Iron Dietary Sourcemeat, fish, enriched grains/cereals, green leafy veggies
Iron Deficiencydecreased production of red blood cells, eventually leading to the iron deficiency Anaemia (chronic tiredness, irritability and decreased capacity to exercise)
Iron ExcessConstipation
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Section

Question Answer
Non-haem Ironis found in plant/animal foods and is absorbed poorly
Haem Ironis found in animals and is readily absorbed.
Zinc FunctionsDNA/RNA, immune system,Manufacture of haem for haemoglobin, Metabolised carbohydrates and proteins, Disposes of damaging free radicals
Zinc Deficiencygrowth retardation, delayed sexual maturation, altered taste, wound healing, vitamin A metabolism
Zinc Dietary Sourceshellfish, meats, poultry, liver, whole grains (protein rich)
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