Vitamins & Minerals

lihiyupa's version from 2017-07-17 06:18

Names of the B-vitamins

Question Answer
B5Pantothenic acid

Physiologic roles of the vitamins

Question Answer
Transketolase (pentose phosphate pathway), alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (oxidative decarboxylation), pyruvate decarboxylase (oxidative decarboxylation)Thiamine (B1)
Electron transport (FAD/FMN)Riboflavin (B2)
Used for reduction reaction (NAD and NADP)Niacin
Involved in fat and carbohydrate metabolism (component acetyl-CoA and component of fatty acid synthase)Pathothenic acid (B5)
Functions of pyridoxine (B6)Remember the mnemonic (The Heck, No Gosh Darn [vitamin] Does This [Much]. Transamination, Heme synthesis, Neurotransmitter synthesis, Glycogenolysis, Decarboxylation, Deamination, conversion of Tryptophan → Niacin
Involved in DNA synthesis, homocysteine metabolism, and odd-chain fatty acid metabolismCobalamin (B12)
Involved in single-carbon metabolismFolic acid (as well as cobalamin/B12)
Involved in carboxylation reactions (pyruvate carboxylase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, propionyl CoA carboxylase)Biotin (B7)
Involved in hydroxylation reactionsVitamin C
Participates in hydroxylation of lysine and prolineVitamin C
What is the significance of hydroxylating lysine and proline?Part of collagen synthesis
Helps reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+Vitamin C
Keeps THF (tetrahydrofolate) reducedVitamin C
Cofactor involved in the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrineVitamin C
Helps neutralize OH free radicalsVitamin C
Part of visual pigmentsVitamin A
Has a role in cell differentiation and spermatogenesisVitamin A
Has a role in calcium metabolismVitamin D
Antioxidant, free radical scavenger, and protects polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from lipid peroxidationVitam in E
Involved in gamma-carboxylation of clotting factors and anticoagulatory proteinsVitamin K

Etiologies of vitamin deficiencies

Question Answer
Alcoholic, malnourished individualThink thiamine (B1)
Carcinoid syndrome (excessive tryptophan made and lost)Niacin (B3)
Hartnup disease (deficient tryptophan absorption)Niacin (B3)
Isoniazid depletes this vitaminVitamin B6
Terminal ileal disease impairs absorption of this vitaminVitamin B12
Autoantibodies to intrinsic factor impair absorption of this vitaminVitamin B12
Pernicious anemia involves malabsorption of this vitaminVitamin B12
Eating raw eggs (contain avidin) impairs absorption of this vitaminBiotin
“Tea and toast” diet can lead to deficiency of this vitaminVitamin C
Excess of this vitamin from eating (polar) bear liverVitamin A
Inadequate sunlight exposure, fat malabsorption, chronic liver disease, and renal failure can cause deficiency of this vitaminVitamin D
Abetalipoproteinemia can cause deficiency of this vitaminVitam in E
If this vitamin is deficient, consider broad-spectrum antibiotics, fat malabsorption, or status as a newborn babyVitamin K

Major clinical constellations of vitamin deficiency

Question Answer
Bleeding problems, corkscrew hair, loosened teeth, poor wound healing, glossitisVitamin C deficiency
Dermatitis, alopecia, glositis, lactic acidosisBiotin
Confusion, ataxia, eye problems (nystagmus and ophthalmoplegia)Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (Thiamine B1 deficiency)
Dilated cardiomyopathyWet beriberi (Thiamine B1 deficiency)
Nerve damage in an alcoholicDry beriberi (Thiamine B1 deficiency)
“Face-related” (corneal neovascularization, glossitis, chiolosis, angular stomatitis)Riboflavin (B2) deficiency
Peripheral neuropathy, sideroblastic anemia, convulsionsPyridoxine (B6) deficiency
Demyelination of the spinal cord, thrombosis, anemia, hypersegmented neurotrphilsCobalamin (B12) deficiency
Excess of this vitamin may impair vitamin K synthesisVitamin E
Night-blindness, eye and skin abnormalities, growth retardation, poor wound healingVitamin A deficiency
Increased intracranial pressure, liver toxicity, bone painVitamin A excess

Mineral pearls

Question Answer
May be lowered from hypoalbuminemia or low magnesiumCalcium
Important in maintaining calcium and potassium levelsMagnesium
Cofactor in adenylyl cyclase and ATPasesMagnesium
Excess of this mineral can lead to calcification in abnormal places (“metastatic calcification”)Phosphate
Component of DNA, RNA, thiamine, and pyridoxinePhosphorus
This mineral, if bound to a molecule (like glucose), traps it in cellsPhosphorus
Deficiency of this mineral may cause muscle weakness, rhabdomyolysis, myoglobinuria, and hemolytic anemiaPhosphorus
Specific signs and symptoms of hyperchloremia and hypochlormemiaNo specific ones
How does acidosis affect potassium?Pulls it out of cells (can cause hyperkalemia)
How does hypoaldosteronism affect potassium?Lower aldo means less potassium is released in the urine (can lead to hyperkalemia)
This potassium derangement can cause peaked T wavesHyperkalemia
This potassium derangement can cause U wavesHypokalemia
In what state of potassium derangement may insulin + glucose help?Hyperkalemia, since insulin helps drive K into cells
How might one attempt to flush K from the body?Kayexalate, a binding resin that grabs K and leads to its excretion
Cofactor for ferroxidaseCopper
Cofactor for collagenaseZinc
Cofactor involved in superoxide dismutaseZinc
Cofactor for tyrosinaseCopper
Cofactor for cytochrome C oxidaseCopper
Component of glucose tolerance factorChromium
Component of glutathione peroxidaseSelenium