Vitamins & Minerals

kedugono's version from 2017-12-02 20:11


Question Answer
B1 NameThiamin
Funtion: Coenzyme of energy metabolismThiamin(B1)
Diatary Source: Pork, whole grains, enriched grains, legumesThiamin(B1)
Deficiency causes Beriberi. Muscle weakness, wasting of lower extremities, heart failure, edemaThiamin (B1)
RDA or AI =1.2mgThiamin (B1)
B2 NameRiboflavin
Functions: Coenzyme of metabolismRiboflavin(B2)
Dietary Source: milk/milk products and meatRiboflavin(B2)
Deficiency: cracks at corner of mouth, ariboflavanosisRiboflavin(B2)
RDA or AI = 1.3 mgRiboflavin(B2)
B3 NameNiacin
Function: Coenzyme of eneergy metabolismNiacin(B3)
Tryptophan is a precursorNiacin(B3)
Deficiency: Pellagra: diarrhea, dementia, dermatitis, deathNiacin(B3)
Dr. Goldberger found cure for what...Pellegra
RDA or AI = 16mg **Can be toxicNiacin(B3)
Functions: Coenzyme involved in DNA synthesis, prevents neural tube defectsFolate
Dietary Source: enriched grains, green vegetables, legumesFolate
Deficiency Symptoms: impaired cell division, megaloblastic anemia, neural tube defects(in infants)Folate
Toxicity Symptoms: masks B12 deficiency symptomsFolate
RDA or AI = 400ug/dayFolate
B12 NameCyanoco Balamin
Functions: coenzyme of new cell synthesis and maintenance of nerve cellsCyanoco Balamin(B12)
Dietary Source: only animal based foods, fortified breakfast cerealsCyanoco Balamin(B12)
Deficiency Symptoms: pernicious anemiaCyanoco Balamin(B12)
B6 NamePyridoxine
Functions: amino acid metabolism, fat metabolism, makes hemoglobin for red blood cellsPyridoxal(B6)
Dietary Source: meat, fruits and veggies, wide spread in foodsPyridoxal(B6)
Deficiency Symptoms: rashes, scaly skin, depression, confusionPyridoxal(B6)
Intrensic factor needed for absorptionVitamin B12
RDA or AI = 1.3mg/day **Can be toxicPyridoxal(B6)
RDA or AI= 2.4ugCyanoco Balamin(B12)
Vitamin A Nameretinol, retinal, retinoic acid
Functions: promotes vision, promotes cell division, suports sperm and fetal development, antioxidant, supports immune system, promotes growthVitamin A
Dietary Source: liver, fortified milk, cheese, butterVitamin A
Precursor for Vit ABeta carotene
Dietary Source: spinach, sweet potatoes, carrotsBeta carotene
Deficiency Symptoms: night blindness, xerophthalmia, keratinization, poor growth, poor immunityVitamin A
Cholesterol is a precursorVitamin D
RDA or AI= 800ug/day ** can be toxicVitamin A
Vitamin D NameCalciferol
Functions: Regulation of calcium and phosphorus absorption and mineralization of bonesVitamin D
Dietary Source: (animal foods only) fortified milk, egg yolk, liver, fatty fish, sun exposureVitamin D
Deficiency: rickets in children, osteomalacia in adultsVitamin D
Toxicity: calcium deposits in soft tissue, kidney damageVitamin D
RDA or AI = 5ug/day **Can be ToxicVitamin D
Vitamin E Nametocopherol
Functions: antioxidantVitamin E
Dietary Source: vegetable oils, nuts and seeds, whole grainsVitamin E
Deficiency: breaking of red cellsVitamin E
Toxicity: can effect anticlotting medicationVitamin E
RDA or AI= 15mg/day **Can be toxicVitamin E
Vitamin K NamePhylloquinone
Functions:blood clotting, synthesis of bone proteinsVitamin K
Dietary Source: GI bacteria, Leafy green vegetables, cabbage, milkVitamin K
Deficiency: delayed blood clottingVitamin K
Toxicity: reduced effectiveness in anticlotting medicinesVitamin K
RDA or AI= 120ugVitamin K
Function: 99% used in bone minerilization structure of bones, teeth. in blood for: muscle contraction, nerve transmission, blood clottingCalcium
Dietary Source: milk/milk products, dark leafy greens, fortified orange juice, fish with bonesCalcium
Deficiency: osteoporosis and stunted growth in childrenCalcium
RDA: 1000mg/dayCalcium
RDA: 400mg/dayMagnesium
Function: bone mineralization, muscle contraction, part of DNA, energy transferMagnesium
Dietary Source: dark green foods, legumes, whole grains, nuts, chocolateMagnesium
Deficiency: weakness and random muscle movementsMagnesium
Functions: fluid/electrolyte balance, nerve transmission, muscle contraction, increase risk of hypertensionSodium
Dietary Source: processed foods(75% of intake), table salt, condiments, sauces, soupsSodium
Deficiency: muscle crampsSodium
Functions: fluid/electrolyte balance, nerve transmission, muscle contractionPotassium
Dietary Source: fresh fruits/veggiesPotassium
Deficiency: muscle weakness and crampsPotassium
RDA: 4700 mg/dayPotassium
RDA: 1500mg/day or 2300mg/daySodium
RDA: 150ug/dayIodine
Functions: component of thyroid hormone, which regulates metabolic rate.Iodine ( Trace mineral)
Deficiency: Goiter(enlarged thyroid), Cretinism(deficiency in mothers that causes irreversible retardation in baby).Iodine (trace mineral)
Dietary Source: iodized salt, seafood, ocean mist(world's major source)Iodine (Trace mineral)
Forms of Iron: is found in plant foods and is absorbed poorlyNon-heme
Forms of Iron: is found in animals and is better absorbed than the other form of iron.Heme
Function: part of hemoglobin and myoglobin which carries O2Iron(trace mineral)
RDA: 18mg Women 8mg MenIron(trace mineral)
Deficiency: Anemia-> low hemoglobin concentrationIron (trace mineral)
Toxicity: hemochromatosis( common genetic disorder. leading cause of accidental poisoning in kids)Iron(trace mineral)
Dietary Source: meat, fish, enriched grains/cereals, green leafy veggiesIron (trace minerals)
Functions: protein synthesis, wound healing, sperm productionZinc (trace mineral)
Deficiency: growth retardation, arrested sexual maturation, impaired immune functionZinc (trace mineral)
Dietary Source: shellfish, red meats, whole grains, fortified cerealsZinc( trace mineral)
Function collagen synthesis, antioxidant, strengthens resistant to infectionVitamin C
deficiency scurvyVitamin C
Food sources citrus fruitsVitamin C
Functions: forms crystal structure of teeth/ makes teeth resistant to decayFluoride (trace mineral)
Deficiency: increased risk for dental cavities/tooth decayFluoride (trace mineral)
Toxicity: fluorisis (darkened teeth)Fluoride (trace mineral)
RDA 4mg/day (AI)Fluoride (trace mineral)
RDA 30ug/dayBiotin
Coenzyme used in metabolic reactionsBiotin
Food sources widespread in foodsBiotin
deficiency depression, numbness in armsBiotin
Name for Vit CAscorbic acid
Dr James lind discovered a cure forScurvy
RDA 90mg/day **Can be toxicVitamin C
Part of coenzyme APantothenic acid
Causes nausea, muscle cramps, depressionPantothenic acid
RDA 30ug/dayPantothenic acid

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