Vitamins & Minerals

fojomumi's version from 2016-12-14 16:41


Question Answer
B1 NameThiamin
Funtion: Coenzyme of energy metabolism, Nerve membrane integrity, TTPThiamin(B1)
Dietary Source: Pork, whole grains, enriched grains, legumeThiamin(B1)
Deficiency: Korsakoff, Beri BeriThiamine
B2 NameRiboflavin
Functions: Coenzyme of metabolismRiboflavin(B2)
Dietary Source: milk/milk products, liver, enriched grains, dark green leafy vegRiboflavin(B2)
Deficiency: cracks at corner of mouth, sensitivity to lightRiboflavin(B2)
B3 NameNiacin, Nicotinic Acid, Nicotinamide
Function: Coenzyme of eneergy metabolismNiacin(B3)
Dietary Source: protein foods, enriched grains, made from tryptophanNiacin(B3)
Deficiency: Pellagra: diarrhea, dementia, dermatitis, deathNiacin(B3)
Toxicity Symptoms: dilated capillaries, tingling sensationNiacin(B3)
Functions: Coenzyme involved in DNA synthesis, requires B12 to functionFolate
Dietary Source: leafy greens, enriched grains, legumesFolate
Deficiency Symptoms: impaired cell division, megaloblastic anemia, neural tube defects(in infants), high homocystine levels ->HD, glossitis, conflusion, weakness Folate
Toxicity Symptoms: masks B12 deficiency symptomsFolate
RDA or AI = 400, 600 microgramsFolate
50 - 100% bioavailabilityFolate
B12 NameCyanoco Balamin
Functions: coenzyme of folate metabolism, maintains nerves and bones, new cell synthesisCyanoco Balamin(B12)
Dietary Source: only animal based foods, fortified breakfast cerealsCyanoco Balamin(B12)
greatest bioavailability in milk and fishB12
Deficiency Symptoms: No IF leads to pernicious anemia and poor nerve functionCyanoco Balamin(B12)
B6 NamePyridoxal
Functions: amino acid metabolism, fat metabolism as PLP/ PMP, makes hemoglobin for red blood cells, NT sythesisPyridoxal(B6)
Dietary Source: meat, potatoes, non citrus fruitsPyridoxal(B6)
Deficiency Symptoms: depression, confusion, anemia, convulsions, dermatitisPyridoxal(B6)
Destruction: acetylaldehyde from alcohol BD eliminates functionB6
Toxicity Symptoms: depression, fatigue, irritability, skin lesions, headache and nerve damagePyridoxal(B6)
RDA or AI= 2.4 microgramsCyanoco Balamin(B12)
Vitamin A Nameretinol
Functions: promotes vision, promotes cell division, antioxidant, supports immune system, promotes growthVitamin A
Dietary Source: liver, fortified milk, cheeseVitamin A
Pro-vitamin A nameBeta carotene
Dietary Source: spinach, sweet potatoes, carrotsBeta carotene
Deficiency Symptoms: night blindness, xerophthalmia, keratinization, poor growth, poor immunityVitamin A
Toxicity Symptoms: birth defects, bone dismantlingVitamin A
Vitamin D NameCholecalciferol
Functions: promotes blood calcium levels through absorption, reabsorption and mobilization, many target tissues Vitamin D
Dietary Source: (animal foods only) fortified milk, egg yolk, liver, fatty fishVitamin D
Deficiency: rickets in children, osteomalacia in adults, osteoporosisVitamin D
Toxicity: calcium deposits in soft tissue, kidney damageVitamin D
RDA or AI = 800-2000IU or 400-1000IU, age and OP risk dependentVitamin D
Functions: protects vitamin A and unsaturated fatty acids, decrease risk in heart disease, protects lungs from air pollution, helps immune functionVitamin E
Dietary Source: vegetable oils, nuts and seeds, whole grainsVitamin E
Deficiency: nerve degeneration, erythrocyte hemolysis, oxidation of PUNfatsVitamin E
Toxicity: hemorrhagic strokeVitamin E
Functions:blood clotting, synthesis of bone proteins that bind to minerals like calciumVitamin K
Dietary Source: GI bacteria, Leafy green vegetables, cabbage, milkVitamin K
Deficiency: decreased bone density, fat malabsorptionVitamin K
Toxicity: reduced effectiveness in anticlotting medicines Vitamin K
Function: structure of bones, teeth. in blood for: muscle contraction, nerve transmission, blood clotting, blood pressure regulationCalcium
Dietary Source: milk/milk products, soy milk, greens and legumes, fortified orange juice, fish with bonesCalcium
Deficiency: osteoporosis, rickets, stunted growthCalcium
Toxicity: constipation, urinary stonesCalcium
Function: bone and teeth structures, major buffer, part of DNA and RNA, role in metabolism, phospholipidsPhosphorous
Dietary Source: adequate in animal protein, dairy products, fishPhosphorous
Function: component of bones, important to enzymes, ATP metabolism, inhibits muscle contraction, inhibits blood clotting, prevents dental carries, protects against hypertensionMagnesium
Dietary Source: dark green foods, legumes, whole grains, nuts, seafood, chocolateMagnesium
DRI: 400mg/day men, 510mg/day womenMagnesium
Toxicity: rare- diarrhea, alkalosis, dehydrationsMagnesium
Functions: fluid/electrolyte balance, nerve transmission, muscle contraction, increase risk of hypertensionSodium
Dietary Source: processed foods(75% of intake), table salt, condiments, sauces, soupsSodium
Deficiency: muscle cramps, headache, confusion, stupor, seizures, comaSodium
Toxicity: leads to hypertension, increase BPSodium
Functions: principle cation in body cells, fluid/electrolyte balance, nerve transmission, muscle contractionPotassium
Deficiency: muscle weakness, glucose intolerence, irregular HBPotassium
Functions: major anion outside body cells, fluid/electrolyte balance, hydrochloric acid in stomachChloride
Dietary Source: table salt, processed foods, soy sauceChloride
Functions: bridges in proteins, stabilizes protein shape, acid/base balanceSulfur
Dietary Source: all protein containing foodsSulfur
Functions: component of thyroid hormoneIodine (Trace mineral)
Deficiency: Goiter (enlarged thyroid) more TSH, Cretinism (deficiency in mothers that causes irreversible retardation in baby).Iodine (trace mineral)
Dietary Source: table salt, seafood, dairy and breadIodine (Trace mineral)
Functions: antioxidant, make AA, collage, hormone and NT, carry and release O2 in RBC, froms part of ETCIron(trace mineral)
Forms of Iron: is found in plant/animal foods and is absorbed poorlyNon-heme
Forms of Iron: is found in animals and is better absorbed than the other form of iron.Heme
Absorption is increased by vitamin C and pregnancy/childhood.Iron(trace mineral)
Absorption is decreased by tannic acid, found in tea, coffee, and calcium, phytates and vegetable proteinsIron(trace mineral)
Deficiency: Anemia-> low hemoglobin concentration, hypochromic/ microchromic RBC, PicaIron (trace mineral)
RDA: 8mg/ day females, 18mg/ day males. 1.8X for vegetariansIron
Toxicity: hemochromatosis( common genetic disorder. leading cause of accidental poisoning in kids, links with HD and cancer- free radicals Iron(trace mineral)
Dietary Source: red meat, fish, eggs, dried fruit, enriched grains/cerealsIron (trace minerals)
RDA Men: 8mg, Women: 18mgIron
Functions: important in many enzymes, insulin, DNA/RNA, immune system, vitamin A, taste perception, clotting wound healing, and sperm development.Zinc (trace mineral)
Deficiency: growth retardation, arrested sexual maturation, impaired immune function, brain function, thyroid, taste, wound healing, vitamin AZinc (trace mineral)
Dietary Source: red meat, shellfish, whole grainsZinc( trace mineral)
Functions: works as an antioxidant, makes thyroid hormone activeSelenium (trace mineral)
Deficiency: may increase risk for heart disease, Keshan's diseaseSelenium (trace mineral)
Dietary Source: meats and other animal products, whole grains, seafoodSelenium (trace mineral)
Toxicity: loss of hair and nails, nervous system abnormalities, garlic breath odour, rashSelenium
Functions: forms crystal structure of teethFluoride (trace mineral)
Deficiency: increased risk for dental cavities (most widespread health problem)Fluoride (trace mineral)
Toxicity: fluorisis, pitting of tooth enamel (darkened teeth)Fluoride (trace mineral)
Dietary Source: drinking water, seafood, teaFluoride (trace mineral)
Functions: carb an dlipid metabolism, maintain glucose homeostasis, enhance activity of insulinChromium (trace mineral)
Dietary Source: yeast, liver, whole grainsChromium (trace mineral)
Functions: antioxidant, helps form hemoglobin, collagen synthesis, wound healingCopper (trace mineral)
Dietary Sources: legumes, whole grains, seafood, nuts, organ meats, seeds, dried fruitsCopper (trace mineral)
Deficiency: may be caused by Menkes diseaseCopper
Toxicity: liver damage, Wilson's disease (accumulation in liver and brain)Copper
Functions: Coenzyme during E metabolism, gluconeogenesis, FA synthesis, FA oxidationBiotin
AI: 30mg/ dayBiotin
Dietary Source: liver, egg yolk, soybeans, fish, GI bacteriaBiotin
Deficiency: depression, hallucinations, hair loss, dermatitis, egg white advin prevents absorptionBiotin
Functions: antioxidant, cofactor in collegen, hydroxylation of carnitine, converts Typ-5HT, Tyr-NepiVitamin C
Dietary Sources: citrus fruits, dark green veg, potatoesVitamin C
DRI: women: 75mg, men: 90mg, increase for smokers. Max absorption is 200mgVitamin C
Deficiency: broken blood vessels, bleeding gums, hysteria, depression, muscle degeneration, teeth fall out, wounds fail to healVitamin C
Toxicity: false positive urine tests, interfere with anticlotting, kidney stones if previously proneVitamin C
Functions: transports long chain FA to mitochondria for oxidationCarnitine
Functions: made from methionine, used to make ACh and lecithinCholine
Dietary Sources: peanuts, milk, liver, eggsCholine
Deficiency: liver damage, rareCholine
Toxicity: low BP, body odour, salivation, reduced growth rateCholine
Functions: antioxidant, cofactor in E metabolism, assist in bone formationManganese
Dietary Sources: plant foods, tea, nuts, bones and liverManganese
Deficiency: apsorption limited by iron and calciumManganese
Toxicity: inhaled over long periods of time, minersManganese
Functions: coenzyme A in E metabolism, forms NT, hormones, and HBPantothenic acid (B5)
Dietary Sources: widespread, chicken, beef, potatoes, oatsPantothenic acid
Deficiency: failure of all body systems, fatigue, burning feet WWIIPantothenic acid
DRI: 2.7 L females, 3.7 L males, 1-1.5 ml/kcal of E (adults), 1.5 ml/kcal (infants and athletes)Water
Deficiency: dehydration, dry mouth/ skin/ mucous membranes, weakness, rapid HR, LBP, delerium, deathWater
Toxicity: more than 10-20 L in few hours, hypoatrenemiaWater