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Vitamins & Minerals

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djohnston's version from 2016-09-15 18:17

Section

Question Answer
B1 NameThiamin
Funtion: Coenzyme of energy metabolism, Nerve membrane integrityThiamin(B1)
Diatary Source: Pork, whole grains, enriched grains, legumesThiamin(B1)
Deficiency causes Beriberi. Muscle weakness, wasting of lower extremities, heart failure, edemaThiamin (B1)
RDA or AI =1.1-1.12mgThiamin (B1)
B2 NameRiboflavin
Functions: Coenzyme of metabolismRiboflavin(B2)
Dietary Source: milk/milk products, enriched grains, meatRiboflavin(B2)
Deficiency: cracks at corner of mouth, sensitivity to lightRiboflavin(B2)
RDA or AI = 1.1-1.3 mgRiboflavin(B2)
B3 NameNiacin, Nicotinic Acid, Nicotinamide
Function: Coenzyme of eneergy metabolismNiacin(B3)
Dietary Source: protein foods, enriched grains, made from tryptophanNiacin(B3)
Deficiency: Pellagra: diarrhea, dementia, dermatitis, deathNiacin(B3)
Toxicity Symptoms: skin flushing, blurred vision, liver damageNiacin(B3)
RDA or AI = 14-16mgNiacin(B3)
Functions: Coenzyme involved in DNA synthesis, requires B12 to functionFolate
Dietary Source: enriched grains, gren vegetables, legumesFolate
Deficiency Symptoms: impaired cell division, megaloblastic anemia, neural tube defects(in infants)Folate
Toxicity Symptoms: masks B12 deficiency symptomsFolate
RDA or AI = 400 microgramsFolate
B12 NameCyanoco Balamin
Functions: coenzyme of folate metabolism, maintains sheath around nerves, new cell synthesisCyanoco Balamin(B12)
Dietary Source: only animal based foods, fortified breakfast cerealsCyanoco Balamin(B12)
Deficiency Symptoms: No IF leads to pernicious anemia, megaloblastic anemia, poor nerve functionCyanoco Balamin(B12)
B6 NamePyridoxal
Functions: amino acid metabolism, fat metabolism, makes hemoglobin for red blood cellsPyridoxal(B6)
Dietary Source: meat, potatoes, bananasPyridoxal(B6)
Deficiency Symptoms: rashes, scaly skin, depression, confusion, anemiaPyridoxal(B6)
Toxicity Symptoms: nerve damagePyridoxal(B6)
RDA or AI = 1.3-1.7 mgPyridoxal(B6)
RDA or AI= 2.4 microgramsCyanoco Balamin(B12)
Vitamin A Nameretinol
Functions: promotes vision, promotes cell division, suports sperm and fetal development, antioxidant, supports immune system, promotes growthVitamin A
Dietary Source: liver, fortified milk, cheeseVitamin A
Pro-vitamin A nameBeta carotene
Dietary Source: spinach, sweet potatoes, carrotsBeta carotene
Deficiency Symptoms: night blindness, xerophthalmia, keratinization, poor growth, poor immunityVitamin A
Toxicity Symptoms: Fetal malformations, liver failure, fractures.Vitamin A
RDA or AI= 700 micrograms for women, 900 micrograms for menVitamin A
Vitamin D NameCholecalciferol
Functions: promotes blood calcium levels, many target tissues Vitamin D
Dietary Source: (animal foods only) fortified milk, egg yolk, liver, fatty fish, sun exposureVitamin D
Deficiency: rickets in children, osteomalacia in adultsVitamin D
Toxicity: calcium deposits in soft tissue, kidney damageVitamin D
RDA or AI = 5-15 micrograms (200-600IU)Vitamin D
Vitamin E Nametocopherol
Functions: protects vitamin A and unsaturated fatty acids, decrease risk in heart disease, protects lungs from air pollution, helps immune functionVitamin E
Dietary Source: vegetable oils, nuts and seeds, whole grainsVitamin E
Deficiency: nerve degeneration, breaking of red cellsVitamin E
Toxicity: hemorrhageVitamin E
RDA or AI= 22 IU in natural, 33 IU in syntheticVitamin E
Vitamin K NamePhylloquinone, menaquinone
Functions:blood clotting, synthesis of bone proteins that bind to minerals like calciumVitamin K
Dietary Source: GI bacteria, Leafy green vegetables, cabbage, milkVitamin K
Deficiency: hemorrhage, skeletal weaknessVitamin K
Toxicity: reduced effectiveness in anticlotting medicines, jaundice, red blood cells breakingVitamin K
RDA or AI= 90-120 microgramsVitamin K
Function: structure of bones, teeth. in blood for: muscle contraction, nerve transmission, blood clotting, blood pressure regulationCalcium
Dietary Source: milk/milk products, soy milk, broccoli, fortified orange juice, fish with bonesCalcium
Deficiency: osteoporosis, ricketsCalcium
Function: bone and teeth structures, major buffer, part of DNA and RNA, role in metabolism, phospholipidsPhosphorous
Dietary Source: soft drinks, animal protein, legumes, dairy products, fishPhosphorous
Toxicity: from soft drinks: decreases calcium absorptionPhosphorous
Function: component of bones, important to enzymes, ATP metabolism, inhibits muscle contraction, inhibits blood clotting, prevents dental carries, protects against hypertensionMagnesium
Dietary Source: dark green foods, legumes, whole grains, nuts, chocolateMagnesium
Deficiency: weakness, muscle pain, poor heart functionMagnesium
Functions: principle cation with body cells, fluid/electrolyte balance, nerve transmission, muscle contraction, increase risk of hypertensionSodium
Dietary Source: processed foods(75% of intake), table salt, condiments, sauces, soupsSodium
Deficiency: muscle crampsSodium
Functions: principle cation in body cells, fluid/electrolyte balance, nerve transmission, muscle contractionPotassium
Dietary Source: fresh fruits/veggies, meat, milk, whole grainsPotassium
Deficiency: (rare) muscle weaknessPotassium
Functions: major anion outside body cells, fluid/electrolyte balance, hydrochloric acid in stomachChloride
Dietary Source: table salt, processed foods, some veggiesChloride
Functions: bridges in proteins, stabilizes protein shape, acid/bacse balanceSulfur
Dietary Source: all protein containing foodsSulfur
Functions: component of thyroid hormone, which regulates metabolic rate.Iodine ( Trace mineral)
Deficiency: Goiter(enlarged thyroid), Cretinism(deficiency in mothers that causes irreversible retardation in baby).Iodine (trace mineral)
Dietary Source: iodized salt, seafood, ocean mist(world's major source)Iodine (Trace mineral)
Functions: part of hemoglobin and myoglobin which carry and release oxygenIron(trace mineral)
Forms of Iron: is found in plant/animal foods and is absorbed poorlyNon-heme
Forms of Iron: is found in animals and is better absorbed than the other form of iron.Heme
Absorption is increased by vitamin C and pregnancy/childhood.Iron(trace mineral)
Absorption is decreased by tannic acid, found in tea, coffee, and calciumIron(trace mineral)
Deficiency: Anemia-> low hemoglobin concentrationIron (trace mineral)
Toxicity: hemochromatosis( common genetic disorder. leading cause of accidental poisoning in kids)Iron(trace mineral)
Dietary Source: meat, fish, enriched grains/cereals, green leafy veggiesIron (trace minerals)
Functions: importnat in many enzymes, insulin, DNA/RNA, immune system, vitamin A, taste perception, wound healing, and sperm development.Zinc (trace mineral)
Deficiency: growth retardation, arrested sexual maturation, impaired immune function, brain function, thyroid, taste, wound healing, vitamin AZinc (trace mineral)
Dietary Source: shellfish, meats, poultry, liver, whole grainsZinc( trace mineral)
Functions: works as an antioxidant, makes thyroid hormone activeSelenium (trace mineral)
Deficiency: may increase risk for heart diseaseSelenium (trace mineral)
Dietary Source: meats and other animal products, whole grainsSelenium (trace mineral)
Functions: forms crystal structure of teethFluoride (trace mineral)
Deficiency: increased risk for dental cavities (most widespread health problem)Fluoride (trace mineral)
Toxicity: fluorisis (darkened teeth)Fluoride (trace mineral)
Dietary Source: drinking water ( 75% of US has access to this)Fluoride (trace mineral)
Functions: associated with insulin to facilitate glucose into cellsChromium (trace mineral)
Dietary Source: meat, egg yolks, whole grains, vegetable oils, nutsChromium (trace mineral)
Functions: helps form hemoglobin, collagen synthesis, works with many antioxidant enzymes.Copper (trace mineral)
Dietary Sources: legumes, whole grains, nuts, organ meats, seeds, dried fruitsCopper (trace mineral)
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