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Vitamins and Minerals and Water

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achapss's version from 2016-12-18 23:29

Section 1

Question Answer
Fat Soluble Vitamins ADEK
Water Soluble VitaminsB complex, Biotin, Pantothenic Acid, Vitamin C
B1Thiamin
B2Riboflavin
B3Niacin
Flavin Mononucleotide(FMN), Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD)Forms of Riboflavin(B2)
Functions of a vitamin: Oxidation Reduction Reactions (FADH), Beta-Oxidation, oxidative stress protection, aides and enhances other vitaminsFunctions of Riboflavin(B2)
Food Sources of a vitamin: milk and yogurt Food Sources of Riboflavin(B2)
source of Vit A that can be converted to retinal found in animal foods, ester Retinol
source of Vit A that can make retinoic acid and comes from plantsRetinal
Vitamin A vision form Retinal
vitamin A growth form comes from plants retinoic acid
preformed vitamin Aretinol
overdose on preformed vitamin A retinolliver damage
Functions of a vitamin: vision, protein synthesis, cell differentiation, reproduction,bone health, immune, cancer aidvit A
how do carotenoids help avoid cancer antioxidants
deficiency: xerophthalmia, night blindness, keratinization of epithelial tissuesvit A
food sources of a vitamin: veggie oils, avocado, nuts, seeds Vit E
alpha tocopherol Vit E
works as an anticoagulant and antioxidant Vit E
toxicity= hemorrhage Vit E
deficiency = cell membrane damage and muscle weaknessVit E
food sources of a vitamin: milk, cereal, organ meatpreformed vit A
food sources of a vitamin: carrots, sweet potato, spinach, cantaloupeprovitamin A/ carotenoids
pro hormone activated on the skin Vit D
preformed Vit D Cholecalciferol (D3) skin/ Ergocalciferol (D2) plants
active vitamin DCalcitriol
Functions of a vitamin: bone growth, cancer prevention, diabetes, autoimmune disease Vit D
Food Sources of a vitamin: fortified milk, fish, cereal, yogurt Vit D
Forms of vitamin Kphylloquinone, menaquinone, menadione (synthetic)
menaquinoneVit K synthesized by gut bacteria
what vitamin must be kept consistent if a patient is currently taking anticoagulant medication?Vitamin K
functions of a vitamin: promotes blood clotting, synthesizes cofactors for bone matrixVitamin K
food sources of a vitamin: green veggies, margarine, olive oil and vinegar dressing Vitamin K
Forms of Niacin (B3)nicotinic acid, nicotinamide
nicotinamidetopical niacin
functions of a vitamin: oxidation reduction reactions, glucose metabolism, lowers Lp(A) cholesterol LDL, maintains skin, digestive systemNiacin (B3)
preformed vitamin made from extra tryptophanNiacin (B3)
food sources of a vitamin: fish, meat, poultry, grainsNiacin (B3)
toxicity of a vitamin: heartburn, flushed skin, vomiting, blood glucose issuesNiacin (B3)
egg white injury renders it unavailable Biotin
function of vitamin: coenzyme for processes that add Co2 to compounds, activate fatty acid synthesis and creation of AcetylCOA, DNA replication, replenishes Oxaloacetate from pyruvateBiotin aka Beauty Vitamin
food sources of vitamin: peanuts, egg yolk, grains, meat, fishBiotin
deficiency of a vitamin: chrons, colitis, dermatitis, hair loss Biotin
what vitamin relies on HCl and results in astrophic gastritis if there is not enough?B12
cobalt containing vitaminB12
cyanocobalamin and active form methylcobalaminB12
what vitamin relies on intrinsic factor and R protein for absorption?B12
functions of vitamin: activates folate, stimulates methionine to cysteine transformation, deoxidation forms succinyl CoA in TCA, myelin sheath maintenanceB12
food sources of vitamin: dairy and meat B12
ascorbic acidVit C
Functions of a vitamin: collagen production, tyrosine synthesis, Neurotransmitter and antioxidant cofactor, immune function, hydroxylation, thyroid hormone synthesisVit C
food sources of vitamin: peppers, oranges, tomato, broccoli Vit C
toxicity causes kidney stones Vit C
pyridoxine/pyridoxal B6
functions of vitamin: coenzyme in protein and glucose metabolism, RBC synthesis, transamination, O carrying hemoglobin enzyme, glycogenolysis and gluconeogensis B6
food sources of vitamin: fortified cereal, meat, legumes, fish, poultry B6
dietary form adds two phosphate groups Thiamin (B1) - TPP
functions of vitamin: activates pyruvate to form acetyl CoA, essential for protein metabolism, nerve signaling, synthesis of sugar phosphates, DNA/RNA synthesisThiamin(B1)
food sources of vitamin: enriched whole grain, fruit, nuts Thiamin(B1)
together with cystine forms coenzyme APanthotenic Acid
functions of vitamin: lipogenesis, Beta oxidation, decarboxylation of pyruvate to make acetyl coA Panthotenic Acid
is in almost all foods Panthotenic Acid
deficiency: fatigue, nausea, vomiting, numbness Panthotenic Acid
deficiency: microcytic hypochromic anemia, sore throat, carpal tunnelB6
poly/monoglutamate formsFolate
how does folate function?once a mono glutamate, a methyl group is added to make 5methylTHF, the methyl is then removed by B12 in order to be used by the body
functions of vitamin: homocysteine to methionine conversion, RBC division, prevention of birth defects Folate
Food sources: green vegetables and enriched grains(by law)Folate
Preformed Vitaminsvitamins found in active form and readily usable
provitamins must be converted to active form in the body
Rickets and OsteomalaciaVitamin D deficiency leading to soft bones that do not mineralize properly
Hypercalcemia Vitamin D toxicity, damage to calcium deposits in heart, nerves, blood and kidneys leading to depression and nervous system issues
Carnitine vitamin substance that stimulates weight loss using fat for energy
Inositol vitamin substance that maintains cell membrane health synthesized from glucose
Lymphoma cancer of the lymph nodes and other blood forming tissues
Leukemiablood cancer
Carcinomaepithelial cell cancer
Scurvy Vitamin C deficiency leading to swollen bleeding gums and rash related to collagen production
Anacephaly death at birth due to folate deficiency and inability to develop the brain
Spina bifida folate deficiency unable to properly form spinal chord and back
Carotenodermia vitamin a toxicity tinge of orange on the skin
Cataracts foggy film over the eyes that causes blindness as a result of vitamin C/E/carotenoid deficiency
Age Related Macular Degeneration AMDdamage to the macula due to accumulation of free radicals based on deficiency of Vit C/E/Beta Carotene, Zinc and Copper
Cholinevitamin like substance that the body can not make, is essential for fetal development and function
Lipoic Acidvitamin substance that utilizes fat for energy and works as an antioxidant
Ariboflavinosis deficiency in riboflavin that causes cell tissue irritation around the mouth, tongue, throat Cheilosis etc.
Beriberi thiamin (B1) deficiency, weight loss, memory, nerve pain can be wet or dry
Wet Beriberi edema and heart failure
Dry Beriberi muscle weakness
Sarcomacancer of the connective tissue as bones and muscle
Macrocytic Anemiafolate/B12 deficiency, larger than normal RBC lacking hemoglobin accumulation of homocysteine slowing DNA synthesis
Pernicious Anemia vitamin B12 deficiency, form of macrocytic anemia that leads to a lack of intrinsic factor in the stomach due to gastritis resulting in malabsorption
hemochromatosis vitamin C toxicity, overload of Iron that damages organs
Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia vitamin B6 deficiency, smaller than normal RBC, pale due to lack of hemoglobin and insufficient heme (oxygen)
Pellegraniacin (B3) Deficiency death, dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea cured with protein and fortified grains
memorize

Section 2

Question Answer
AI for sodium1500mg
UL for Sodium2300mg
DGA Recommendation for Sodium<2300mg
food sources for a mineral: fish and saltIodine
Cretinismiodine deficiency, congenital hypothyroidism, abnormal sexual development and dwarfism
Secondary Goiter iodine deficiency, enlargement of the thyroid gland due to goitrogens
Simple Goiteriodine deficiency, enlargement of the thyroid gland due to the build up of hormone precursors
deficiency of mineral: goiter and cretinismIodine
Toxicity of mineral: impaired thyroid functionIodine
trace mineral necessary in salt responsible for thyroid T3 and T4 hormones Iodine
functions of mineral: metabolic rate, energy in TCA cycle,nerve and muscle functionIodine
trace mineral strengthens teeth and bones forms flouroappetie Fluoride
toxicity: teeth rot fluorosis Fluoride
Deficiency: dental carries Fluoride
food sources of mineral: red meat, seafood, whole grains, dark meat Zinc
toxicity: nausea, vomit, immune issues, lowers HDLZinc
Deficiency: loss of appetite and taste function, rashZinc
trace mineral found in bone and metallenzyme function dependent on nonheme iron levels Zinc
functions of mineral: wound healing, taste perception, gene regulationZinc
ferritinprimary iron store protein
hemosiderin secondary iron store protein
Hepcidinhormone in liver that controls iron absorption by inhibiting ability to detach from ferritin etc and out of enteryoctyes
food sources of mineral: meat, fish, eggs, poultry Iron
Toxicity: hemochromatosis Iron
deficiency: anemia Iron
trace mineral that is the most abundant on earth and the body most common deficiency Iron
hemeanimal foods most bioavailable iron
nonhemeplant foods iron less bioavailable
functions of mineral: oxidation and reduction reactions, hemo/myoglobin, energy metabolism, immune function, brain, neurotransmitter enzymeIron
MFP Factormeat fish and poultry increase bioavailability of nonheme iron
food sources of mineral: greens, nuts, whole grains, milk, yogurt, eggs Magnesium
food sources of mineral: meat, fish, poultry, dairy, soft drinksPhosphorus
food sources of mineral: processed foods and canned goods Chloride
Calcitriol active vitamin D, stimulates reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys and prompts break down from bone
Systole BP at heart beat
Diastole BP at arteries between heart beat
major mineral oxidized sulfur, part of other body compounds Sulfate
large role in methionine and cysteine 3D structure Sulfate
major mineral, mostly in bone and some in cells only 50% bioavailable lowered by high fiberMagnesium
functions of mineral: RNA and protein synthesis, metabolic enzyme, bone metabolismMagnesium
hyperphosphatemia Phosphorus toxicity decrease bone mass and leave calcium deposits
hypophosphatemia Phosphorus deficiency muscle weakness and pain, rickets, death
major mineral second most abundant, mostly bone, availability enhanced with Vit D Phosphorus
functions of mineral: bones and teeth, cell membrane - phospholipids, part of ATP, buffer, backbone of DNA/RNAPhosphorus
trabecular bonesoft inside of bone sensitive to change in dietary calcium
cortical bonehard bone
what happens when there are high blood calcium levels?PTT release decreases and secretion of calcitonin inhibits activation of Vit D to calcitriol, then prevents breaking down of bone for calcium instead prompting the formation of bone
What happens when there are low blood calcium levels?PTT release increases and prompts activation of vitamin D to calcitriol prompting kidneys to keep not excrete calcium and breaking down bone
major mineral most abundant in the body in bones and teethCalcium
what increases the bioavailability of calcium?Vit D and Lactose
what decreases the bioavailability of calcium?high protein diets and oxalates/phytates
major mineral, cation in ICF Potassium
functions of mineral: fluid/pH balance, muscle contraction and nerve impulse, calcium and phosphorus conservation, reduces kidney stonesPotassium
major mineral and electrolyte mostly in blood and ICF in stomach Chloride
functions of mineral: maintain fluid balance, removal of CO2 from blood, pH regulation, digestionChloride
Hyperkalemia potassium toxicity, irregular heart beat and damage leading to death
Hypokalemia potassium deficiency, low BP muscle weakness, usually due to increased vomiting and diarrhea
Hypovolemia reduced blood volume when sodium levels are too high, increased thirst, reduced BP and hypotension
Hyponatremia water poisoning, depletion of sodium brain swelling very rare
what is the role of alcohol in water balance?inhibits ADH effecting electrolyte concentrations
What is the role of caffeine in water balance?insignificant
How much water is recommended a day for men and women?men: 13 cups women: 9 cups
What happens in high sodium concentrations?low blood volume, hypothalamus stimulate thirst with ADH and kidneys to hold water
What happens in low sodium concentrations?high blood volume and blood pressure, water in blood moves to ICF to lower BP, regulated by aldosterone
how do diuretics treat hypertension? HBPstimulate diuresis by prompting the kidneys to reabsorb more sodium and water making to artery walls relax, can increase risk of hypokalemia
what factors limit mineral bioavailabilty?phytates, oxalates, polyphenols
What are the functions of water in the body?acid base reactions, solvent, transportation, body temp, cell structure, hydrolysis
major mineral and electrolyte found in the ECF regulates blood volume and component of hydroxyappetite Sodium
what are the major minerals? (7)Sodium, Magnesium, Chloride, Potassium, Calcium, Phosphorus, Sulfate
memorize

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