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Viruses

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Updated 2007-06-11 13:29

Virus Review Sheet

Viruses are classified based on:
Nucleic acid (DNA or RNA)
Strandedness (SS, DS, partial DS)
Polarity of nucleic acid (positive-sense or negative-sense)
Envelope (presence or absence)
Nucleocapsid shape (icosahedral, helical or complex)
Genome Segmentation (segmented or non-segmented)
Nucleic acid structure (linear, circular or partial-circular)
In general, the presence of an envelope confers instability on the virus. Enveloped viruses are more sensitive to heat, detergents, and lipid solvents (such as alcohol and ether) than non-enveloped viruses, which are composed only of nucleic acid and capsid proteins

Classify viruses by nucleic acid, strandedness (& polarity) and nucleic acid structure

Viral FamilyD/RNA structure
PoxvirusesDNA - DS - linear
HerpesvirusesDNA - DS - linear
HepadnavirusesDNA - partial DS - partial circular
AdenovirusDNA - DS - linear
PapillomavavirusDNA - DS - circular
PolyomavirusesDNA - DS - circular
BaculovirusesDNA - DS - circular
ParvovirusDNA - SS - linear
CalicivirusesRNA - SS(+) - linear
ReovirusesRNA - DS - linear
AstrovirusesRNA - SS(+)
PicornavirusesRNA - SS(+)
FlavivirusRNA - SS(+) - linear
TogavirusesRNA - SS(+) - linear
RetrovirusesRNA - SS(+) - linear
OrthomyxovirusesRNA - SS(-) - linear
ParamyxovirusesRNA - SS(-) - linear
RhabdovirusesRNA - SS(-) - linear
FilovirusesRNA - SS(-) - linear
BornavirusRNA - SS(-) - linear
CoronavirusesRNA - SS(+) - linear
ArenavirusesRNA - SS(-) - circular
BunyavirusesRNA - SS(-) - circular
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Envelope?

Viral FamilyEnvelope?
PoxvirusesY
HerpesvirusesY
HepadnavirusesY
AdenovirusY
PapillomavavirusY
PolyomavirusesY
ParvovirusY
CalicivirusesN
ReovirusesN
AstrovirusesN
PicornavirusesN
FlavivirusY
TogavirusesY
RetrovirusesY
OrthomyxovirusesY
ParamyxovirusesY
RhabdovirusesY
FilovirusesY
BornavirusY
CoronavirusesY
ArenavirusesY
BunyavirusesY
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Capsid Shape

Viral FamilyCapsid Shape
Poxvirusesicosahedral (complex)
Herpesvirusesicosahedral
Hepadnavirusesicosahedral
Adenovirusicosahedral
Papillomavavirusicosahedral
Polyomavirusesicosahedral
Parvovirusicosahedral
Calicivirusesicosahedral
Reovirusesicosahedral
Astrovirusesicosahedral
Picornavirusesicosahedral
Flavivirusicosahedral
Togavirusesicosahedral
Retrovirusesicosahedral
Orthomyxoviruseshelical
Paramyxoviruseshelical
Rhabdoviruseshelical
Filoviruseshelical
Bornavirushelical
Coronaviruseshelical
Arenaviruseshelical
Bunyaviruseshelical
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Genome Segmentation

Viral FamilySegmentation
Poxvirusesnonseg
Herpesvirusesnonseg
Hepadnavirusesnonseg
Adenovirusnonseg
Papillomavavirusnonseg
Polyomavirusesnonseg
Parvovirusnonseg
Calicivirusesnonseg
Reovirusessegmented (10-12)
Astrovirusesnonseg
Picornavirusesnonseg
Flavivirusnonseg
Togavirusesnonseg
Retrovirusesnonseg
Orthomyxovirusessegmented (7-8)
Paramyxovirusesnonseg
Rhabdovirusesnonseg
Filovirusesnonseg
Bornavirusnonseg
Coronavirusesnonseg
Arenavirusessegmented (2)
Bunyavirusessegmented (3)
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Name examples in each viral family, dieases common names included.

Viral FamilyExamples
PoxvirusesVariola virus (smallpox), molluscum contagiosum
HerpesvirusesHSV1 (cold sores), HSV2 (genital herpes) , VZV (chicken pox), EBV (mononucleosis), CMV (mononucleosis), HHV6, HHV7, HHV8
HepadnavirusesHepB
AdenovirushAd4, adenovirus (common cold)
PapillomavavirusHPV (cervical carcinoma)
PolyomavirusesJC virus
ParvovirusB-19 virus, AAV (Adeno-associated virus)
CalicivirusesHepE, Norwalk virus (diarrhea)
ReovirusesRotavirus (diarrhea), Colorado tick fever virus
AstrovirusesAstrovirus
Picornaviruses(PERCH): Poliovirus, Echovirus, Rhinovirus (common cold), Coxsackievirus A & B, HepA
FlavivirusHepC, HepG, Yellow fever virus, Dengue virus (hemorrhagic fever), Japanese encephalitis virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus
TogavirusesRubella virus, Forest Semliki Virus, Eastern/Western/Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
RetrovirusesHIV (AIDS), HTLV1 - T cell lymphoma, HTLV2 - Hairy cell leukemia
OrthomyxovirusesInfluenza A and B virus
ParamyxovirusesParainfluenza, RSV, Measles, Mumps
RhabdovirusesRabies virus (rabies encephalitis)
FilovirusesEbola virus, Marburg virus (hemorrhagic fevers)
BornavirusBorna disease virus (BDV)
CoronavirusesHuman corona virus (common cold), SARS coronavirus (SARS)
ArenavirusesLassa fever virus, Junin/Machupo/Guanarito viruses, Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)
BunyavirusesHantavirus, California encephalitis virus
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Receptors, Co-Receptors, and Anti-Receptors when applicable...

 

Question Answer
PodoviridaeLipopolysaccharide, , tailfibers
SiphovridaeLamB, , J protein
PolyomaviridaeSialic Acid, , glycoprotein
PapillomaviridaeHeparin, , Integrin
AdenoviridaeCAR, Integrin, knob
HerpesviridaeHeparin, Heparin, glycoprotein
ParamyxovirusHemagglutinin, ,
OrthomyxoviridaeHemagglutinin, ,
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Notable People in Virology

 

Question Answer
Wendell StanleyCrystallized Tobacco Mosaic Virus
Anthony van LeeuwenhoekBuilt first microscope and saw RBCs
Lady Mary Wortley MontaguVariolation and smallpox
Edward JennerSmall Pox vaccine with cow pox
Robert KochGerm theory with Koch's postulates
Louis PasteurTreated Joseph Meister with rabies treatment
James PhippsFirst to get smallpox vaccine (cowpox by Edward Jenner)
Dmitri IwanowskiCalled viruses "filtering agents"
Martinus BeijerinckDiscovered that viruses are a distinct living entity
Carlos Finlay and Walter ReedWent to Cuba and discovered Yellow Fever was from mosquitos
Karl Landsteiner and Erwin PopperFound that Polio was a disease causing virus
Max ThielerCultivated from chicken eggs a Yellow Fever Vaccine
Martha Chase and Alfred HersheyProved nucleic acids were the genetic material
Luc MontagnierFound that HIV causes AIDS
Carlo UrbaniAlerted officials early about SARS
Renato DulbeccoIncorporation of viral genes in host-cell genome
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