Virtue Ethics- RS A2

archiebw's version from 2016-06-06 21:52


Question Answer
On what kind of morality does 'virtue ethics' concentrate which distinguishes the theory?The morality of the person, as opposed to the morality of acts.
Whence do the roots of virtue ethics come?Aristotle's writings.
Who thinks morality has suffered a catastrophe, and what did he say?Alasdair MacIntyre, and "“we have – very largely if not entirely – lost our comprehension, both the theoretical and practical, of morality.”
Who is inspired by an idea from Greek literature, and what is it? Alasdair MacIntyre, and "to judge a man is to judge his actions."
What must we cultivate, according to Aristotle, and what is the Greek word he used?Moral skills, and arête.
What is the Greek word meaning 'practical or moral wisdom'?Phronesis.
What are the two virtues one must display in friendship?Courage and fidelity.
Name a way in which Aristotle's position on morality was different to Kant's.Aristotle was teleological- whatever we do we do to achieve an end; the ultimate end is the greatest good.
How many moral virtues did Aristotle lay out for the Athenian gentleman, and what did they lie between?12, and excess and deficiency.


Question Answer
What might virtue ethics call 'getting up in the morning' and 'earning a living'?A subordinate and a superior aim, respectively.
To what is everything subordinate?The supreme good of happiness, or eudaimonia.
Name three things people seek for happiness, and which one did Aristotle believe to be the noblest?To achieve pleasure, honour or contemplation, and the latter.
What did Aristotle have to say about the virtues of cities? Elaborate.No set of virtues was superior to another, as there was no absolute platonic Good beyond the world.
Which three questions can be said to summarise virtue theory and who came up with them?"Who am I? Who ought I to become? How do I get there?" and James F. Keenan.
What aim of virtue ethics is likened to good parenting, and by whom?Self-knowledge or understanding ourselves, and James F. Keenan.
According to MacIntyre what is a moral society?A society in which commonly agreed virtues are recognised and people aspire to meet them.
Who said that ideas of excellence improve and clarify over time, and what does he give as an example of this?Alasdair MacIntyre, and the fact that the ancient Homeric world saw excellence in terms of the warrior.
How could it be said that prudence was central to Aristotle, and to who else was it central?He believed our goals must be achievable, and Aquinas.
What is the vice of deficiency and excess regarding munificence?Pettiness and vulgarity, respectively.
What is the vice of deficiency and excess regarding sincerity?Ironical deprecation and boastfulness, respectively.


Question Answer
To Aristotle, what is every human action?A moral action.
Virtue ethics is p--a----- approach.Proactive
Despite being largely similar, name a way in which Virtue Ethics could be said to be superior to Christian ethics.It doesn't espouse problematic moral absolutes.
What is the name of the author who wrote the work '‘Are virtues no more than dispositions to obey moral rules?' and what was his criticism of virtue ethics?Walter E. Schaller, and he contested that virtues have only instrumental or derivative value.
Who rejected the idea that old values are simply outdated, what did she have to add, and who might she be implicating?Julia Annas, that a romantic nostalgia for them is an attitude which is equally harmful, and Alasdair MacIntyre.
Who brings euthanasia into the argument, and what does he say?Robert Louden, and that a weakness of Virtue Ethics is that it doesn't provide answers to specific moral dilemmas such as euthanasia.
How might Virtue Ethics make it difficult to decide who is virtuous, and who says this?People who perform virtuous acts may have doubtful inner motives which can't be perceived, and vice versa, and Robert Louden.
What is the sentence following the quote “Men will be good or bad builders as a result of building well or badly." and who wrote it and where?"For if this were not so, there would have been no need of a teacher, but all men would have been born good or bad at their craft," and Aristotle in 'Nichomachean Ethics'.
Which aspect of virtue ethics can be said to be progressive?Its universal applicability, which means that a person cannot reasonably say servility is a virtue in a woman and not a man.
What critical word might be aimed at Virtue Ethics?'Anti-enlightenment'
Who argues that virtue ethics could be a reasonable ethical code for capitalism?Deirdre McCloskey.


Question Answer
What does Nietzsche call this and other individualistic moralities?"Prudence, prudence, prudence, mingled with stupidity, stupidity, stupidity.”
What is a criticism of the nature of the twelve virtues Aristotle names?They are very masculine.
What could virtue ethics possibly be used to justify?An individual's development at the cost of society.
What is a good example of how virtue ethics would succesfully operate in a situation?A parachute jump, because cowardice would mean the person would not jump, and rashness would mean the person would jump without a parachute.
What is a quotation from the Bible which could be said to be against virtue ethics, and who said that it is?'Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth' and Richard Taylor
To what two other ethical theories might it appeal?Utilitarianism and Kantian ethics.
What did Philippa Foot say on the matter that could be interpreted as critical of virtue ethics?Virtues do not gurantee happiness.
Who argues that virtue ethics is compatible with deontology and utilitarianism?Martha Nussbaum
Who argues that contemporary virtue ethicists have few points of agreement, and which does she cite?Martha Nussbaum, and Alasdair MacIntyre, Bernard Williams, Philippa Foot, and John McDowell.

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