Virology- Viral Diseases of Swine 2

rfwhite42's version from 2015-05-08 00:58

Swine influenza

Question Answer
etiological agent? DNA or RNA? Enveloped or naked?othrthomyxoviridae, RNA, enveloped. SEGMENTED
what should you know about this virus' structure?SEGMENTED--> REASSORTMENT!! Also has large peplomers of 2 types (HA and NA)
who else does this virus effect?HUMANS-->ZOONOTIC! also can be passed to birds
which strain is most common in US and Europe?H1N1.
which stains affect people?H1N1, H2N2, H3N2, H1N1, H1N1 are the ones that have/can infect people
how does this virus affect the herd overall?Many animals appear infected at the same time (explosive outbreak)
what is the main clinical signs of swine influenza?RESPIRATORY DISTRESS. Some pigs pay develop severe bronchopneumonia
what is the recovery from swine influenza like?QUICK recovery
what is the mortality of this virus like?the case fatality rate is less than 1% in uncomplicated cases
what is the main issue with this dz?ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE
what are the gross lesions you'll find at necropsy?sharply demarcated lung lesions with CONSOLIDATION! also alveolar atelectasis, interstitial pneumonia and emphesyma (when you have the flu, your lung feels like one giant useless lump)
how do you dx swine influenza?it requires laboratory confirmation. Viral isolation in reference laboratories. Also IF
why do we care a lot about control?In a recent outbreak (2009) there was person to person spread and this caused a pandemic (the source was not swine though). either way, zoonotic, so we want to control this well.
is there a vx?for people, yes, she didnt say if there was one for swine

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS)

Question Answer
etiological agent? DNA or RNA? Enveloped or naked?Arteriviridae, RNA, enveloped. (PRR and ARRteri)
why do we care so much about PRRS?economic importance.
how resistant is this virus?is enveloped, however At low temperature the virus persists well in the environment (does well in the dePRRSing winter)
what are the two main dz's/problems this virus causes?resp dz and abortion
how is PRRS transmitted?Contact, airborne and sexual transmission via semen
how long does the virus last in the body?there are persistently infected healthy swine (PRRSistant)
what kinda discoloration do these pigs show? where?blue!! discoloration of the ears, snout and vulva (also because does well in low temps=blue)
clinical signs of preg sows and piglets?agalactia and abortion in late gestation. Premature, still births and mummified fetuses. If born alive, piglets are are weak and they might die, often from resp. distress.
how does PRRS affect older swine?older swine can show clinical signs or be subclinical
how do you dx PRRS?Moribund live pigs should be used for viral isolation (dead fetus wont work) (de-PRRSing)

Rotavirus gastrointestinal disease

Vesicular exanthema of Swine

Question Answer
what viral family? naked or enveloped, rna or dnaCaliciviriday, RNA naked.
is this virus a huge concern? Why or why not?It has been eradicated from swine but still present in marine mammals. concern because similar to FMD and other vesicular diseases.
what are the clinical signs?acute fever, vesicles on snout, tongue, mouth, teats and feet; lameness, rapid weight loss depression etc. may cause encephalitis, myocarditis, fever, diarrhea and cause abortion.
How's morbidity and mortality?High morbidity, low mortality (except some strains)
what's the usual outcome?uncomplicated cases recover in 1-2 weeks
transmission?direct contact and fomites (feed)
is this notafiable?YES because appears like FMD
diagnosis?viral isolation in swine cell culture, serological test and EM
controlIt was eradicated by quarantine, garbage cooking laws and slaughter program.
How's immunity?good immunity developed but since there's a large number of non-cross-protective viral variants (at least 13 types) reinfections were common.


Question Answer
family, naked or enveloped, dna or rna, something specialPoxviridae, DNA some are Enveloped *replicates in cytoplasm even though its DNA*
where does it occur?worldwide
What are the main clinical signs?lesions on skin, mostly abdomen but occur everywhere, low grade fever, papules that progress to vesicles for 1-2 days then umbilicated pustiles which scab in 7 days.
diagnosis?Usually just look at clinical signs
TransmissionLOUSE- mechanical vector
control?elimination of lice, improved hygeine
how long till scabs and vesicles heal?about 3 weeks

Check yourself

Question Answer
hyperemia and purpura of abdomen and ears?hog cholera
leukopeniahog cholera, african swine fever, porcine parvo
infarction of spleen is pathognomonichog cholera
WHAT IS THE MOST PROMINENT LESION IN HOG CHOLERA?general exhaustion of the lymphoid system
immunologically tolerant piglets who are lifelong sheddershog cholera (I am tolerant of cauliflower)
soft ticks are reservoirs and vectorsafrican swine fever
petechia in renal cortexafrican swine fever
persistant sheddershog cholera and african swine fever, parvo, pseudorabies, PRRS
pseudorabies is akaAujeszky’s disease
herpes where intranuclear inclusion bodies might not show uppseudorabies/aujeszky's dz
horses, cattle, sheep, goats, dogs, cats and many wild species can also get this dzpseudorabies/aujeszky's dz
mummified fetusespseudorabies, porcine parvo, Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), CSF
NO VIREMIApseudorabies/aujeszky's dz
microscopic lesions in CNSpseudorabies
shed in nasal discharge and saliva, but not in feces or urinepseudorabies
rats/ raccooons might contribute to transmission from farm to farmpseudorabies
dz affects repro, resp, skin, and kidneyPMWS
serology not usefulPMWS
find virus in replicating cellsporine parvovirus
SMEDIporcine parvovirus
sows keep going into estrus after matingporcine parvo
if only gilts are mentioned in the question, it might be hinting you towards....parvovirus
vesicular stomatits affects who?SWINE AND HORSES (and cows)
in semenparvo, PRRS
maternal IgA (not IgG) is helpful in fighting infectionTransmissible gastroenteritis (TGE)
many swine becoming lame all at the same time is a red flag for...swine vesicular dz
If you have a petting zoo with swine, horses, and cows, and chickens, and the swine horses and cattle all start to get vesicular lesions, which disease do you think it is?Horses dont get FMD, so not that. Vesicular dz of swine is only swine, so not that, so has to be vesicular stomatitis (rhabdoviridae)
segmentedpig influenza
HA and NA peplomeresswine influenza
H1N1swine influenza
consolidated lung lesionsswine influenza
semen xmissionPorcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), parvo (semen out the PP. both involve lots of dead pigglets)
blue discoloration?Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS)
red discoloration?ASF(could be cyanosis too, cards are as she emphasized) and hog cholera are RED!!!
piglet born weak and is in resp distress is prolly...Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS)
dx involves sending in moribund (near death) piglets to labPorcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS)
WILD PIG RESIVIOARSpseudorabies, african swine fever
PERSISTENT INFECTIONpseudorabies, african swine fever, hog cholera(classical swine fever,) parvovirus, Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS)
NO VXafrican swine fever
ABORTION?hog cholera(aka classical swine fever), african swine fever, Pseudorabies (Aujeszky’s disease), Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) (NOTE: porcine parvovirus usually causes SMEDI, not abortion!!!)
ZOONOTICswine vesicular disease, swine influenza
Ddx for african swine fever?hog cholera (classical swine fever)

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