Virology- Viral Diseases of Horses 2

rfwhite42's version from 2015-05-07 23:05

Adenovirus pneumonia

Question Answer
Etiological agent? DNA or RNA? Enveloped or naked?adenoviridae. DNA, naked
unique structure of the virus?PENTON FIBERS for adenoviridae (ADed a pen to a virus to write out the SCID foals)
microscopic giveaways a cell is infected with adenovirus pneumonia?intranuclear inclusion bodies AND paracrystaline arrays (arabian with the SCIDs will poop crystals)
are adenovirus pneumonia infections usually severe, or are they usually mild?In horses most adenovirus infections are asymptomatic or mildly affect the upper and lower respiratory tract
usual clinical symptoms of adenovirus pneumonia?mild/asymptomatic upper and lower resp infection
does adenovirus pneumona affect upper, lower or both resp tracts?both
what is a SCID foal?arabian foal with a primary severe combined immunodeficiency disease (absence of B and T cells) (Arabian dude with the SCIDS sucks)
when is an adenovirus pneumonia more severe, and what are the signs?in a SCID foal they will be much more severe than just the bronchiolitis and pneumonia. there will also be cell destruction in the pancreas, salivary glands, renal, bladder, and intestinal epithelium
how do you dx adenovirus pneumonia?antigen ELISA and PCR, serology, and virus isolation
how do you control this?nothing!
systemic or specific body system affected?resp

Equine abortion

Question Answer
etiological agent? DNA or RNA? Enveloped or naked?equine herpes virus **1** (EHV1), DNA, enveloped (abortion is the #1 shittiest thing to happen to you)
cellular give-aways of infection with EHV1?intranuclear inclusion bodies
clinical signs?resp infection (similar to EHV4 aka equine rhinopneumonitis) and then abortion. (generalized fatal dz if perinatal infection), sporatically there will be encephalitis (or as epidemics in association with abortion and respiratory disease)
when does the abortion usually occur?last 4mo of preg
what kind of complications and signs are with equine abortion?It doesn’t have complications and there are no premonitory signs
in what situation can EHV1 cause a fatal generalized dz?perinatal infection (during pregnancy or delivery)
aside from respiratory and abortion, what other body system is affected by EHV1? how common is this, and what are the clinical signs?CNS--> encephalitis. can happen sporadically or as epidemics in association with abortion and respiratory disease. Clinical signs of this can be ataxia, recumbancy, limb paralysis, death (herpes can get into nerves)
what is a special red flag symptom of this dz?urinary incontinence due to virus myelopathy (fetal and urinary incontinence, lol)
explain how (pathogenesis) the EHV1 causes the neurological disease (like the encephalitis) as well as the abortionviremia--> vasculitis of the CNS BVs causing the neurological dz (caused by vasculitis, ischemia, and hemorrhagic infarcts) is believed to be due to Ag-Ab complexes. The viremia also can infect the gravid uterus and infect the fetus, causing abotion (it also spreads to other organs, of course)
what is the resp problem caused by EHV1 called? how dangerous is it? what other symptom/disease might be present (unrelated to resp)Pulmonary vasculotropic EHV1 infection causes respiratory distress with high mortality. Ocular dz might also be present (serous ocular discharge) (mom almost lost her eyes before birthing me, good thing i wasn't an accidental abortion)
how can you dx a EHV1 infection? whats important to do?will see intranuclear inclusion bodies!(herpes). Also can do Virus isolation from nasal pharyngeal secretions or blood leukocytes, type-specific PCR, Immunofluorescence using type specific monoclonal antibodies, or paired serum samples (MUST BE TYPE SPECIFIC STUFF bc this is EHV1, and there is also EHV3, which is Equine coital exanthema)
is there a vx?yes

Equine coital exanthema

Question Answer
etiological agent of ECE? DNA or RNA? Enveloped or naked?EHV3! DNA, enveloped (three has a lot of coitus. but he doesnt cause abortion--> nope, he does the opposite. cause you better believe his fertility is just fine)
any microscopic give-aways for ECE?INTRANUCLEAR INCLUSION BODIES (herpes)
how is EHV3/ECE transmitted?direct and sexual contact (coital) AND FOMITES (horse dildos)
how would you describe equine coital exanthemia in common words?"genital herpes of horses" (EHV-3 causes an acute usually mild disease with pustules and ulcerations in the genital area)
what are the clinical signs of ECE?pustules and ulcerations of the vagina, penis, prepuce and perineum. Lesions may also be seen on the lips (of nursing foals and teats from the mare) and the respiratory mucosa (usually subclinical in yearlings)
what places in the body does ECE effect?ONLY REPRO TRACT!!! ((and maybe lips and resp muscosa of foals who are nursing...) but there are NO SYSTEMIC SIGNS AND NO ABORTION
are there systemic signs? are there abortions?NO AND NO
how is fertility affected in ECE?there is NO EFFECT ON FERTILITY OF FEMALES OR MALES!!! there is just a dec in libido of the stallion (prolly bc his wang is sore)
Gross physical clue-in to if it's ECE?Carrier animals can sometimes be identified by spots of pigment loss on black skin in the genital region
how do you dx?PCR, serology
what is th dz course like?LATENT FOR LIFE (herpes)

Vesicular stomatits

Question Answer
etiological agent? DNA or RNA? Enveloped or naked?Rhabdoviridae, RNA, enveloped
what is super important to know about this dz?DDX WITH FOOT AND MOUTH (affects horses, cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs)
what animals does vesicular stomatitis affect?horses, cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs
how does the virus enter the host?through breaks in mucosa or skin
how can VS be transmitted?FOMITES, mechanically by arthropods (mouths are resistant to warnings, gonna be sore soon) (kissed by an arthropod is going to make people rather want their lips to bubble off)
clinical signs?profuse salivation, lameness, vesicles & ulcers on oral epithelium (lips, tongue) and coronary bands may appear
how widespread is the dz in the host?Only local vesiculation and interstitial edema. Healing is rapid and complete
how good are the Abs formed against VS?reinfections can occur
how do you dx?serologic carried out in authorized labs (sero, stoma)
how do you control vesicular stomatitis?Annual epidemics, endemic areas, seasonal suspect arthropod-borne (so not a whole lot can be done)

Equine sarcoid

etiological agent: Unknown for certain, Bovine papillomavirus suspected
Question Answer
what do sarcoids look like?skin tumors that look like fibrosarcomas. They persist for life, are locally invasive and require treatment.
Are sarcoids metastatic?No
Is direct contact from horse to horse common?No, probably a bovine virus so not usually spread horse to horse.
Treatment for equine sarcoidssurgery, laser, radiation, topical drugs, all have Variable success. Immunotherapy is a new treatment.
what can cause regression of periocular sarcoids?Injection of BCG Mycobacteria
New way of treating equine sarcoid?immunotherapy- stimulation of cell-mediated responses by injecting immunopotentiators
Different types of sarcoids (6)Occuate, verrucous, nodular, fibroplastic, mixed and malevolent
Verrucous sarcoidsSlow growing sarcoids that appear on head, neck and groin.
Nodularfirm nodules under skin that occur around eyes and groin.
Fibroplasticoccur as ulcerative aggressive masses, often appearing at site of wounds or as a result of damage to a less aggressive form of sarcoid.
Mixed sarcoids. What's special?Combinatino of any sarcoid. Can be more aggressive as they change to fibroplastic type
Malevolentthese consist of multiple nodular or fibroblastic sarcoids which invade the lymphatic vesses. Rare and appear on face, inside thigh and at elbow

Equine papillomatosis

Question Answer
Etiological agentpapova DNA naked
Clinical signs?small, elevated keratinized papillomas around lips nose and sometimes lower limbs (look like warts)
how do you diagnose equine papillomatosis?Look at it --> warts
how do you treat equine papillomatosis?They usually regress on their own in 1-9 months.
Where are the papillomas located on horse?around the lips and nose, sometimes on the lower limbs


Question Answer
transmission via horse fly and stable fly (and is its transmission mechanical or arbo?)mechanical transmission-EIA (flying HIV would be horrible)
virus persists in leukocytesEIA (HIV=WBCS) (EVA also infects macrophages)
acute, subacute, recovered and chronic stagesEIA
Vasculitis and glomerulonephritis mediated by immune complexesEIA (anemia always affects the kidney, this is just...a little furthur. also remember that EIA=COGS=immunecomplexes)
mild resp dz and abortionEVA (equine influenza causes resp and the fever will cause abortion, also equine abortion causes resp signs and abortion also)
BIRDS are the reservoir hostEquine encephalitis, west nile encephilitis
horses and humans are dead end hostsequine encephalitis, west nile encephilitis
is you see a horse pressing its head against the corner of the stall, what are you thinking?encephalitis, primarily (or west nile, or abortion...they all can cause encephalitis)
if you see abnormal positioning, movement, and behavior can be...west nile, rabies, EHV1(abortion) and equine encephalitis
large peplomers of 2 kinds: rod-shaped HA (hemagglutinin) and mushroom shape NA (neuroaminidase)Equine influenza (orthomyxoviridae)
Equine herpesvirus 4 causes what?Equine rhinopneumonitis
paracrystaline arraysAdenovirus pneumonia
can lead to severe dz with cell destruction in the pancreas, salivary glands, renal, bladder and intestinal epithelium in SCID foals?adenovirus pneumonia
what is a SCID foal?arabian foal with a primary severe combined immunodeficiency disease (absence of B and T cells)
nothing is done to try to control this infectionadenovirus pneumonia
equine herpes virus 1 (EHV1) is what dz?equine abortion
abortion occuring in last 4mo of pregequnie abortion aka EHV1
urinary incontinence due to virus myelopathyequine abortion EHV1
Ab-Ag complexes causing vasculitisEHV1 (equine abortion), also EIA
possible ocular dzEHV1(equine abortion) (has AbAg, so, can damage retinal Bvs?)(herpes and eyes. think cats)
repro tract dz with no abortions, no effect on fertilityEHV3, aka equine coital exanthema
EHV1 vs EHV3?1= equine abortion. 3= equine coital exanthema
how long does colostrum protect a foal? explain the diff situations with SCIDscolostrum usually protects for 3-6 mo. So if SCIDs foal drinks plenty of colostrum, wont die of Adenovirus pneumonia until AFTER 3-6mo. If doesnt drink ENOUGH, will have subclinical dz until 3-6 mo. If no colostrum, dies very soon after birth.
ENCEPHALITISEquine encephalitis, west nile encephilitis, equine abortion(EHV1)
ABORTIONEVA, EHV1(equine abortion), equine influenza (fever) (NOTE: EHV3 aka equine coital exanthema does NOT CAUSE ABORTION!!!)
ZOONOTICEquine encephalitis, west nile encephilitis
ARBOVIRUSequine encephalitis, west nile encephilitis
INSECT VECTOR BUT NOT ARBOVIRUSEIA(horse and barn flies), vesicular stomatitis (transmitted mechanically by arthropods)
differential diagnoses for west nile virus?EEE, WEE, Rabies, and EHV1(equine abortion, which also has CNS signs)
EEE and WEE transmitted by what?mosquitos

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