Viro - Swine 2

bakireba's version from 2017-05-03 14:29

Swine Influenza

Question Answer
Etiological agent? DNA or RNA? Enveloped or naked?Othromyxoviridae, RNA, enveloped. SEGMENTED
What should you know about this virus' structure?SEGMENTED→ REASSORTMENT!! Also has large peplomers of 2 types (HA & NA)
Who else does this virus effect?HUMANS → ZOONOTIC! Also can be passed to birds
Which strain is most common in US & Europe?H1N1
Which stains affect people?H1N1, H2N2, H3N2 are the ones that have/can infect people
How does this virus affect the herd overall?Many animals appear infected at the same time (explosive outbreak)
What is the main CS of Swine Influenza?RESPIRATORY DISTRESS. Some pigs pay develop severe bronchopneumonia
What is the recovery from Swine Influenza like?QUICK recovery
What is the mortality of this virus like?The case fatality rate is less than 1% in uncomplicated cases
What is the main issue w/ this dz?ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE
What are the gross lesions you'll find at necropsy?Sharply demarcated lung lesions w/ CONSOLIDATION! Also alveolar atelectasis, interstitial pneumonia & emphysema (when you have the flu, your lung feels like one giant useless lump)
How do you dx Swine Influenza?It requires laboratory confirmation. Viral isolation in reference laboratories. Also IF
Why do we care a lot about control?In a recent outbreak (2009) there was person to person spread & this caused a pandemic (the source was not swine though). Either way, zoonotic, so we want to control this well.
Is there a vx?For people, yes, she didn’t say if there was one for swine

Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS)

Question Answer
Etiological agent? DNA or RNA? Enveloped or naked?Arteriviridae, RNA, enveloped. (PRR & ARRteri)
Why do we care so much about PRRS?Economic importance.
How resistant is this virus?Is enveloped, however at low temperature the virus persists well in the environment (does well in the dePRRSing winter)
What are the two main dz's/problems this virus causes?Resp dz & abortion
How is PRRS xmitted?Contact, airborne & sexual xmission via semen
How long does the virus last in the body?There are persistently infected healthy swine (PRRSistant)
What kinda discoloration do these pigs show? Where?Blue!! Discoloration of the ears, snout & vulva (also bc does well in low temps=blue)
CS of preg sows & piglets?Agalactia & abortion in late gestation. Premature, still births & mummified fetuses. If born alive, piglets are weak & they might die, often from resp. distress.
How does PRRS affect older swine?Older swine can show CS or be subclinical
How do you dx PRRS?Moribund live pigs should be used for viral isolation (dead fetus won’t work) (de-PRRSing)


Question Answer
Family, naked or enveloped, DNA or RNA, something specialPoxviridae, DNA some are Enveloped *replicates in cytoplasm even though its DNA*
Where does it occur?Worldwide
What are the main CS?Lesions on skin, mostly abdomen but occur everywhere, low grade fever, papules that progress to vesicles for 1-2 days then umbilicated pustiles which scab in 7 days.
How do you Dx?Usually just look at CS
TransmissionLOUSE - Mechanical vector
Control?Elimination of lice, improved hygeine
How long till scabs and vesicles heal?~3 weeks

Vesicular Eexanthema of Swine

Question Answer
What viral family? naked or enveloped, rna or dnaCaliciviridae, RNA naked.
Is this virus a huge concern? Why or why not?It has been eradicated from swine but still present in marine mammals. Concern bc similar to FMD & other vesicular diseases
What are the clinical signs?Acute fever, vesicles on snout, tongue, mouth, teats & feet; lameness, rapid weight loss, depression etc. May cause encephalitis, myocarditis, fever, diarrhea & abortion
How's morbidity and mortality?High morbidity
Low mortality (except some strains)
What's the usual outcome?Uncomplicated cases recover in 1-2 weeks
Transmission?Direct contact and fomites (feed)
Is this notafiable?YES bc appears like FMD
Diagnosis?Viral isolation in swine cell culture, serological test & EM
ControlIt was eradicated by quarantine, garbage cooking laws & slaughter program
How's immunity?Good immunity developed but since there's a large number of non-cross-protective viral variants (at least 13 types) reinfections are common

Check yo'self

Question Answer
Hyperemia & purpura of abdomen & ears?Hog Cholera
LeukopeniaHog Cholera
African Swine Fever
Porcine Parvo
Infarction of spleen is pathognomonicHog Cholera
WHAT IS THE MOST PROMINENT LESION IN HOG CHOLERA?General exhaustion of the lymphoid system
Immunologically tolerant piglets who are lifelong sheddersHog Cholera (I am tolerant of cauliflower)
Soft ticks are reservoirs & vectorsAfrican Swine Fever
Petechia in renal cortexAfrican Swine Fever
Persistant shedders(PHAPP same as persistant infxns duh)
Hog Cholera
African Swine Fever
Pseudorabies is akaAujeszky’s dz
Herpes where intranuclear inclusion bodies might not show upPseudorabies/Aujeszky’s dz
Horses, cattle, sheep, goats, dogs, cats & many wild species can also get this dzPseudorabies/Aujeszky’s dz
Mummified fetuses(PHPP) No ASF here!
Hog Cholera (CSF)
Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS)
NO VIREMIAPseudorabies/Aujeszky’s dz
Microscopic lesions in CNSPseudorabies
Shed in nasal discharge & saliva, but not in feces or urinePseudorabies
Rats/ raccoons might contribute to xmission from farm to farmPseudorabies
Dz affects repro, resp, skin, & kidneyPMWS
Serology not usefulPMWS
Find virus in replicating cellsPorcine Parvovirus
SMEDIPorcine Parvovirus
Sows keep going into estrus after matingPorcine Parvo
If only gilts are mentioned in the question, it might be hinting you towards....Parvovirus
Vesicular Stomatitis affects who?SWINE & HORSES (& cows)
In semenParvo, PRRS
Maternal IgA (not IgG) is helpful in fighting infxnXmissible gastroenteritis (TGE)
Many swine becoming lame all at the same time is a red flag for...Swine Vesicular dz
If you have a petting zoo w/ swine, horses, & cows, & chickens, & the swine horses & cattle all start to get vesicular lesions, which dz do you think it is?Horses dont get FMD, so not that. Vesicular dz of swine is only swine, so not that, so has to be Vesicular Stomatitis (Rhabdoviridae)
SegmentedPorcine Influenza
HA & NA peplomeresSwine Influenza
H1N1Swine Influenza
Consolidated lung lesionsSwine Influenza
Semen xmissionPorcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), Parvo (semen out the PP. both involve lots of dead piglets)
Blue discoloration?Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS)
Red discoloration?ASF(could be cyanosis too, cards are as she emphasized) & Hog Cholera are RED!!!
Piglet born weak & is in resp distress is prolly...Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS)
Dx involves sending in moribund (near death) piglets to labPorcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS)
WILD PIG RESERVOIRSPseudorabies, African Swine Fever
Hog Cholera (Classical Swine Fever)
African Swine Fever
Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS)
NO VXAfrican Swine Fever, Swine Vesicular Disease, Vesicular exanthema
Pseudorabies (Aujeszky’s dz)
Hog Cholera (aka classical Swine Fever)
African Swine Fever
Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS)
(NOTE: Porcine Parvovirus usually causes SMEDI, not abortion!!!)
ZOONOTICSwine Vesicular dz, Swine Influenza
Ddx for African Swine Fever?Hog Cholera (Classical Swine Fever)