Viro - Poultry 2

drraythe's version from 2015-08-30 22:35

Avian Influenza

Question Answer
Etiological agent? DNA or RNA? Enveloped or naked?Orthomyxoviridae, RNA, enveloped
Unique features of the virusSEGMENTED & NA/HA PEPLOMERES
Where in the cell does Avian Influenza replicate?RNA THAT REPLICATES IN THE NUCLEUS!! (Flus are weird)
As a flu virus, it undergoes genetic ressortment, which type does shift & drift?Type A
What are the major reservoir of Avian Influenza?Waterfowl
Which strains did she note to be ZOONOTIC?H5N1, H9N2 (5 & 9 are in order. 1 & 2 are in order. it's ALMOST 69 but not quite)
Very virulent strains of AI are known as?"Fowl Plague" (sudden death)
"Fowl Plague" strain CS?Sudden death w/ no prodromal signs (PLAGUE OF DEATH)
CS of Avian Influenza?Cessation of egg laying, respiratory distress, sinusitis, diarrhea, edema of the face & neck, cyanosis of the comb & wattles (getting the FLU, esp the worst one, makes me blue)
What is very important in determining the virulence of Avian Influenza?HA (Hemeagglutinin) peplomere
Why does HA play an important role in virulence? How does this vary strain to strain?Epithelial cells of the respiratory & *GI* are usually affected by the HA (technically they cleave it to activate it), but in virulent strains, the HA is cleaved in OTHER tissues also, leading to systemic dz & death
What are the CS/lesions/problems of the animal infected w/ the virulent strain?Viremia, multifocal lymphoid & visceral necrosis, pancreatitis, myocarditis, myositis & encephalitis (like Newcastle Dz)
What are the gross lesions caused by virulent strains?Gross lesions include petechial hemorrhages & serous exudates in respiratory, digestive & cardiac tissues
How do you dx?Virus Isolation is essential to determine virulence! You get a sample via cloacal swab & then it's injected into the sac of embryonated eggs & IDed by Hemagglutination. Typing is then done by HA & NA inhibition assays (injecting butt stuff into a baby egg to watch it's blood clot from the flu is also just weird)
After you have dx, what must you do?* How?DETERMINE VIRULENCE!
What are some non-contact ways this virus is xmitted?Can survive in feces & in WATER AT A LOW TEMP! (hence, waterfowl shitting)
Is there vx?Vx not used, lots of probs w/ it
What are control measures to deal w/ this Avian Flu?NOTIFIABLE! At the international level, there are quarantine & removal programs at the national level & locally, chicken facilities are usually wild-bird proof
Virulence is determined by?Innoculating 1 day & 6 wk old chicks & seeing how fast they die

Avian Infectious Bronchitis

Question Answer
Etiological agent? DNA or RNA? Enveloped or naked?Coronaviridae, RNA, enveloped (YELLOW CROWN was around a chickens bronchi)
What are CS dependent on?Depending on the age, route of infection, immune status & viral strain
What are the CS of chicks which are _________ old (she gave CS for this age)1-4wk old, virulent strains will cause gasping, coughing, rales, nasal exudates & respiratory distress
What is mortality like? When is there higher mortality?There is mortality, (abt 30%), higher in birds which get secondary infections
What are the CS in birds in egg production?Production show respiratory signs plus involvement of the reproductive tract w/ cessation of egg laying & when resumed there are egg abnormalities (pale, deformities, no shell, etc) & pasting (Bronchi glue the BUTT & then the eggs are FU**ED<--it rhymes)
What is pasting?Their butt is glued shut w/ exudate/goop
What color casts will you find in the trachea of a bird w/ Avian Infectious Bronchitis?YELLOW
What are the GROSS LESIONS you’d find in Avian Infectious Bronchitis?There is mucosal thickening w/ serous or catarrhal exudate in nares, trachea, bronchi & air sacs. Yellow casts block bronchi in young chicks causing death. Pneumonia & conjunctivitis may be seen & in laying hens, ova can rupture resulting in free yolk found in the abdominal cavity (can’t breathe if bronchi full of yellow burst yolks)
How do you dx AIB?IF of tracheal smears, virus isolation, RT-PCR, types determined by serology
How is AIB xmitted?Aerosols & ingestion of feces-contaminated feed & Fomites (so of course poop & aerosols, bc corona & fomites prolly bc persisting in poop)
Is there a vx?YES! Either AVIRULENT FIELD ISOLATES or ATTENUATED. However, breaks are common
Why is control difficult?Persistently infected chickens!! (Mom has a persistent bronchitis right now)

Avian Infectious Laryngotracheitis

Question Answer
Etiological agent? DNA or RNA? Enveloped or Naked?Herpesviridae, Gallid Herpesvirus 1, DNA, enveloped
What are the ages affected like for this one?All ages but it is most common in birds 4-18 months old
CS?There is coughing, sneezing, nasal & ocular discharge, dyspnea, loud gasping & depression follows. In severe cases, "pump handle respiration" Expectoration of bloody mucus or frank blood can be observed (a pump that pumps out blood...that's as scary as Herpes)
Pathogenesis/ gross lesions? Where?Necrosis, hemorrhage, ulceration & diphtheric membranes occur in the larynx & trachea! There is latent infections (HERPES)
Dx?IF of smears & virus isolation, serology,
DDx?Fowl pox (Diphtheric form) & other respiratory dzs (AIB, Avian Flu)
How/who is the xmission?Virus introduced by carrier birds (HERPES), xmitted by droplet & inhalation & less commonly ingestion
How fast does AIL spread?It spreads more slowly than Newcastle, influenza & Infectious Bronchitis (Herpes likes to take it slow, baby)
Is there vx?Yes → Vaccination protects against dz but not against infection

Fowlpox (FINAL LIST SAYS: just as differential in Diphtheric from)

Question Answer
Which strain has high mortality?Diphtheric form (high mortality)
Etiological agent?Poxvirus, DNA, enveloped
Xmitted by?Mosquito
Geographic occurrence?Fowlpox is a serious dz of poultry & occurs worldwide
How resistant?Extremely resistant to desiccation & can persist in the environment for long periods of time in scabs
Xmission?Scabs, fighting & pecking, mosquitos, lice & ticks & probably aerosols

Avian Reo Virus

Question Answer
Family, naked or enveloped? DNA or RNA?Reoviridae, RNA Naked SEGMENTED! re-assortment!
Range of CS (just in general not actual signs)Can be inapparent to fatal, depends on strain
What do you do if you've discarded all your differentials?Then it's probably Reo since it presents a million ways
MAIN differential CSARTHRITIS is caused by Reo and nothing else
CS?All the things chronic respiratory disease, feather abnormalities, gastroenteritis, malabsorption syndrome, hepatitis, myocarditis, tenosyvitis, ARTHRITIS, weight loss, stunted growth, excess mortality, morbidity 100%, mortality usually <2%
Morbidity and mortality?Morbidity 100% mortality <2% (can be worse depends on strain)
How do you Dx?IF & viral isolation in avian cell culture
Control?Good sanitation, regular serologic testing, quarentine & testing before introducing new stock.
Pathogenesis in organs?Lesions in the bursa & other lymphoreticular tissues, intestines, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas & tendon sheaths are of focal necrosis & inflammatory infiltration

Chicken Anemia

Question Answer
Etiological agent?Circoviridae, DNA, naked (RBCs are CIRCLES)
What does this virus cause in chickens?Anemia, acute immunosuppressive dz
What kinda xmission?Horizontal (direct contact & fomites) & vertical while there is viremia
How old do they start to show CS & what are the CSs?When they are 3 weeks old show lethargy, anorexia, depression & are pale
Why is there anemia?The anemia is due to bone marrow aplasia & atrophy of lymphoid organs. There might be SQ & IM hemorrhages
Dx?History, CS (low PCV, blood looks watery & clots slowly),
Is there a vx?Yes

Check yo self

Question Answer
4+wk to adult chickens getting sickNewcastle
Ducks & geese w/ inapparent infectionsNewcastle (ducks & geese just outside the castle, not in it)
What are the three types of Newcastle & explain them?Velogenic, Mesogenic & letrogenic= high, moderate & low virulence respectively
Up to 100% mortality in unvaccinated flocks & 10-20% mortality in vaccinated onesNewcastle
Segmented genomeInfectious Bursal Dz (IBD) (and Avian Flu)
BirnaviridaeInfectious Bursal Dz (IBD)
All secretions & excretions are able to xmit dzNewcastle
Affects YOUNG LAYER chickensIBD (Infectious Bursal Dz) (poor layers gotta try to squeeze an egg out past a swollen bursa?)
What is the dz where only the one serotype causes dz in poultry? & what is that serotype?Infectious Bursal Dz (IBD), only serotype 1 causes dz (you only get 1 bursa!)
Maternal Abs are helpful for first 4wk of lifeNewcastle
Maternal Abs are ineffective against strong variantsInfectious Bursal Dz (IBD) (BC destroying so many immune organs, maternal Abs just can’t keep up)
Enlarged kidneys w/ lots of urates is a red flag for?Infectious Bursal Dz (IBD)
HERPES but w/ no specific numberMarek’s dz
Virus can be obtained from DANDER IN FEATHER FOLICLES & this is the source of xmissionMarek's dz
Asymmetric paralysis w/ incoordination, wing dropping, lowering of the head & if the vagus is involved, crop dilation & gasping alsoMarek’s
Greying iris w/ irregular pupil...what dz & why?Marek’s & greying because lymphoblastoid cell infiltration
Can affect nerves, eyes & skinMarek’s
Macrophage associated viremiaMarek’s
Infection of lymphoid cells of the thymus, bursa, bone marrow & spleenMarek’s
Enlargement of peripheral nerve trunksMarek’s
Inoculate chicken kidney w/ buffy coat to do virus isolationMarek’s
Vx does NOT prevent xmission! Also, peripheral neurologic dz continues to occur but at reduced incidenceMarek’s
Birds w/ genetic resistance to the dz?Marek’s & Avian Leukosis
Infectious Bursal Dz has tropism for what cells?B lymphocytes
Tropism for B lymphocytes? T lymphocytes?B = Infectious Bursal Dz
T = Marek's
Marek's has trophism for what cells?T-lymphocytes
See urate crystals in what? Why?Infectious Bursal Dz, because of kidney dysfunction
Affects birds over 14wk ageAvian Leukosis
Congenital or genetic xmissionLeukosis
Incubator infectionAvian Leukosis
Genetically resistant chickens!Avian Leukosis & Marek’s
RNA virus which replicates in the nucAvian Influenza, (Orthomyxoviridae)
Waterfowl reservoir?Avian Influenza
SWINE, AVIAN, EQUINE INFLUENZA...which is/are ZOONOTIC?Avian & swine are, equine isn’t
Pancreatitis & Encephalitis are two signs of a virulent strainAvian Flu (flu so bad it's even in your pancreas? dayum)
Can survive in low temp waterAvian Flu
If its corona, in almost any sp, where does it affect?GI and/or resp
PastingAvian Infectious Bronchitis
Messed up looking eggsAvian Infectious Bronchitis (bronchi glue the butt then the eggs are f**ed) & Egg Drop
YELLOW GUNK/CASTS? RED GUNK/CASTS?Yellow = Corona = Avian Infectious Bronchitis
RED = Herpes = Avian Infectious Laryngotracheitis
See free yolk in body because of ruptured ova?Avian Infectious Bronchitis
Avirulent field isolates or attenuated vxAvian Infectious Bronchitis
Herpes dzs?Marek’s & Avian Infectious Laryngotracheitis
Most common in birds 4-18 months oldAvian Infectious Laryngotracheitis (starts w/ 4, where its ddx, bronchitis, left off) (18yo w/ Herpes, lulz)
Pump handle breathingAvian Infectious Laryngotracheitis
Dz w/ a strain which can be ddx for resp viruses (which esp.?)Fowlpox, Diphtheric strain (esp Laryngotracheitis)
Watery blood which clots slowlyChicken Anemia
SQ & IM hemorrhagesChicken Anemia
Persistently infected chickensAvian Infectious Bronchitis (Corona)
Marek’s (Herpes)
Avian Leukosis (Retro)
Laryngotracheitis (Herpes)
SEGMENTEDIBD, Avian Influenza
GENETIC SHIFTIBD, Avian Influenza (type A)
Vertical xmissionLeukosis (transovaranian in lentogenic Newcastle, I think this counts?)
Contains an ONCOGENEMarek’s, Avian Leukosis rarely does
ImmunosuppressionMarek’s, Infectious Bursal Dz, Chicken Anemia
ZOONOTICAvian Influenza (technically Newcastle but she didn’t emphasize)
No vxAvian Flu
NotifiableAvian Flu (ZOONOTIC!)