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VIRO MT

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isabellepjk's version from 2017-10-10 04:42

Canine NAKED (CPAP/PCARB)

Question Answer
Infectious Canine Tracheobronchitis/Kennel CoughDry hacking or moist cough
trachea pressure elicits cough
NOT ONE SPECIFIC VIRUS → can be caused by a lot of viruses (CAV 1/2, CPI, corona, reo, herpes 1, also bacterial
Can go from mild to severe
Common in group settings
Canine papillomatosispapoviridae (DNA, NAKED)
Dz/Clin signs: lesions in mouth/gentials/occular
Usually regress within months
dx: easy to recognize but can use IH
Vx: can use cells from virus as auto vx
Infectious Canine HepatitisADENOVIRUS 1; vx is for TWO (DNA, naked)BUT BEHAVES LIKE ENVELOPED → EASY TO DISINFECT
Host: Dogs, skunks, bears
Transmission: mainly urine (shed up to 6months), also feces and saliva
Pathogen: enters MM, <u>infecting tonsils and payers patches </u> → causing hems and necrosis in liver, spleen, kidneys, and lungs
Dz/clin signs: Often asymptomatic, or undiff resp dz, Peracute, acute (petechial hems, jaundice, anorex, etc), abdominal pain, leukopenia, INC PT/PTT, DIC, convulsions,
Dx: PCR from orophar/cjtv, ELISA/serology with paired samples
VX: YES CAV2; attenuated shed-seeding for secondary protection and herd immunity
Special: inclusion bodies, aggln RBCs, BLUE EYE FROM CAV 1 VX (resolves within a few days)
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Canine ENVELOPED (AHHIP/PFTACOBARRF)

Question Answer
RabiesCNS Dz
Rhabdoviridae (RNA Enveloped)
bullet shaped
all mammals
Pathogen: Bite → primary rep in mm → travels to CNS through peropheral nerves → then salivary glands
Clin Signs: lack of fear or humans; hypersalivation
Dx: DFA; NEGRI BODIES on histopath or RT-PCR NO SEROLOGY
Vx: Targets G glycoprotein
Special: furious form in dogs, cats and horses; paralytic/dumb in cattle and lab animals
Canine DistemperParamyxoviridae (RNA, enveloped)
MORBILIVIRUS
Hosts: canine, racoons, large felids
Many Dz: multisystemic (neuro, GI, resp), Old dog encephalitis , hard pad dz (nose and foot), enamel hypoplasia
Clin signs: biphasic fever, anorexia, catarrah, CJTVS , pleuritis, vomiting and watery d+; EVENTUALLY → encephalitis, perma CNS ticks,
Pathogen: direct contact from ANY secretion
dx: Ag detection/ELISA; impression smear of CJTV or peripheral blood lymphocytes
Special: dz duration depends on host immune resp, sheds before clinical signs
YES vx but NEED BOOSTERS
differential dx: parvo, lepto, toxoplasmosis, rabies, canine hepatitis

leukopenia and death, acute in puppies; larynx and bronchi, and cough; synctiums and intracytoplasmic intranuclear inclusion bodies;
Canine Parvovirus DzParvoviridae (naked, DNA)
Host: canidae
Dz: myocarditis in pups with sudden death and no clinical signs; leukopenia/enteritis in pups 8-12 weeks; first sign is vomiting with d+ after; subclinical dz also possible, pulmonary edema; lymphocytic infiltration and myocardial fibrosis
dx: Ag ELISA SNAP, PCR
pathogen: enter via oropharynx → host cell must be in S phase; vili are blunted as they are rapidly dividing and ~intestines become thick and inelastic with granular looking serosa
Vx: COMPLETE SCHEDULE
Transmission: fecal
Special: replicates in DIVIDING CELLS, has inclusion bodies, aggln RBCs
Canine influenzaOrthomyxo (Env, RNA)
SEGMENTED AND REPLICATES IN NUCLEUS EVEN THOUGH IT'S RNA
Special: Rod Shaped HA and Mushroom NA; fast evolution
vx: YES but only one and for one strain
Dz/clin signs: mild cough and moist or severe dz with fever, dyspnea, etc
Dx: NO AG ELISA; paired serology is good
tx: symptomatic
Parainfluenza virusParamyxo (Env, RNA)
RUBULAVIRUS
CAN CROSS A LOT OF SPECIES
Dz/Clin signs: mild resp dz but also CNS signs, sudden onset of nasal secretions, cough, and fever, severe cases can have cjvts, tonsilitis anorexia, and lethargy
dx: isolation from nose and throat
vx:vaccine combo
Hemorrhagic Dz of pups/herpesHerpes 1 (DNA, enveloped)
Transmission: sexual or through birth
Pathogen: low body temp in pups
dz/clin signs: abortion, stillbirths, infertility, also infrequent kennel cough, may see raised sores in penis/vag; yellow soft feces, loss of suckling reflex, hemorr around BV, belly bruising, EYE LESIONS like uveitis, ketatitis,
dx: necropsy showing kidney, lung, liver, and GI hemorr
vx: in europe → given during heat/pregnancy and then 1-2 weeks before whelping
tx/control: keep puppies warm, injecting Abs, isolate bitches after birth, future litters may survive d/t Ab transfer
Special: not really worldwide; previously infected dogs might have intermitt shedding in vaginal secretions, penile secretions and NASAL DISCHARGE; seroprev 40-93%, high puppy mortality with death in 1-2d when under 1 week; less severe in pups 3-5 weeks but can get latent infxn and later have trouble walking or become blind; immunosupp or steroids might make it come back → latency in trigem gang or lumbosacral gang
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Feline NAKED (CPAP/PCARB)

Question Answer
Feline Panleukaka Feline Distemper
Parvoviridae (DNA, Naked)
Pathogen: S phase, RAPIDLY dividing cells like SI, brain defect and ataxia occurs from fetuses infected the last two weeks of preg or the first two weeks of life.
Pathology:Enteritis with segmental thickening and necrosis, large LNs, pale fluid bone marrow
Dz/Clin Signs: CEREBELLAR HYPOPLASIA, ENTERITIS, PANLEUK, cerebellum is fucked in kittens and in adults they get leukopenia and enteritis; fever, DAY 3 get diarrhea, repeated vomiting, ATAXIC KITTENS if they were infected 2 weeks before or after birth)
Dx: Clin signs and LEUKOPENIA when alive; post mortem-HI
Vx: inactivated vx should be given to pregs and kittens younger than 4 weeks; give attenuated vx if entering a contaminated shelter because inactivated takes longer
Transm: Virus shed in feces, urine, vomit, and saliva, recovered cats can excrete for severeal months; DIRECT contact or fomite transmission, Fleas and humans can be vectors
Special: S phase cells like canine parvo, inclusion bodies, Hemaggln RBC, NOT related to bovine parvo-but related to all other parvos and milk enteritis, VERY STABLE and hard to disinfect, highly contagious, disinfect with Sodium hypochlorite
Feline CalciCalciviridae (RNA, Naked)
Special: exits by cell lysis , seroprevalence is almost 100% by age 1, carriers shed from oropharynx for life continuously (herpes comes and goes), different strains-bad ones cause alopecia, edema, splenic necrosis,
Clin signs/Dz: URI, ulceration of oral epithelium (VERY SIM TO HERPES/RHINOTRACH), stiff gait, NO CORNEAL ULCERS, Carrier state after recovery,
Dx: Viral isolation, IF, and ELISA; LIPID SOLVENT
Tx: Symptomatically
Vx: attenuated and inactivate vx in combo with herpes 1; vx prevents against URI and clinical, NOT INFECTION OF, pnumonia
Transmission: aerosol, fomites
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Feline ENVELOPED (AHHIP/PFTACOBARRF)

Question Answer
FIVRetrovirus (RNA, enveloped)
LENTIVIRUS
Special: PROVIRUS; retest positives under 6 months every 60 days until they're 6m d/t maternal Abs
Transmission: BITES or milk, NO ZOONOSES and NO in utero transmission
Dz/clin signs: 3 stages, gingivitis and stomatitis, CNS changes, infections of bladder/skin
Pathogen: T LYMPHOCYTES; most cats are viremic for life; provirus inserts into host genome
Dx: Ab ELISA (but gives false positives), WB, PCR which detects provirus
Tx: no specific tx but AZT against RT enz has some success
FeLVRetrovirus (RNA, enveloped)
GAMMARETROVIRIDAE
Special: MOST COMMON NON ACCIDENTAL CAUSE OF DEATH IN CATS; viral replication and release are NOT required to produce dz , can be + on ELISA and - on indirect IFA early on
Dx: HARDY TEST P27 IFA, ELISA, latent infection cultivate bone marrow; IMPOSSIBLE to isolate the virus; PCR/hybridization
dz/clin signs: Neoplastic: lymphosarcoma (t except for of alimentary tract are B), myeloproliferative dz, fibrosarcoma; NONneoplastic: Anemia, immunopathological; multicentric- thymic- alimentary- unclassified (SKIN, EYES, CNS); Erythroblasts/blastopenia/pancytopenia=ANEMIA; immunopathologic dz → glom nephritis, lymphoid cell depletion, ADCC; cats fail to thrive, shitty hair coat, non healing wounds, stomatitis and gingivitis, chronic resp dz, higher incidence of FIP, toxo, and bartonella, infertility/abortions
Pathogenesis: Gp70, transforming a virus, FOCMA, persistent active infections, self limiting infection becomes latent
Transmission: saliva, prolonged contact, bites, blood transfusions
FIPCoronoaviridae (RNA, enveloped)
Mutations of FeCoV WITHIN THE HOST
Special: Abs do not mean FIP will develop; Most cats with FeCoV don't even get FIP and may only get d+; even without clinical signs may be FeCoV carrier; no cure; QUARANTINE IS NOT NECESSARY BECAUSE THE MUTATION HAPPENS IN MACS AND THAT IS WHAT CAUSES DZ, polyclonal hyperglobulinemia
Pathogen: inhale/ingest virus from feces, also fomites; Mutations happen in MACs as it is immune mediate!; vasculitis, hummoral immunity may be detrimental; vasc lesions are d/t complexes and NOT attack of endothelium, autoabs, fibrin, etc
Dx: NO DEFINITIVE TEST, tissue biopsy and IHC, RT-PCR, RIVALTA (high protein, low cell aseptic), ELISA can help, Corona titers ALONE are NOT enough
Clinical signs/dz: WET: more common, fluid accum in chest or abd, jaundice, diarrhea, no appetite; DRY: NO FLUID and uveitis/CNS signs; pyogran lesions
Feline RhinotrachHerpes 1 (DNA, Enveloped)
INCLUSION BODIES
DDx: Calcivirus vs herpes ➝ herpes responds to L-Lysine powder
Clin signs/Dz: sudden nasal/ocular discharge, UR signs, weight loss, possible tongue ulcers, bronchopneumonia, KERATITIS in eyes, can kill kittens, pregs may abort but fetuses do not get infected
Dx: NOT REQUIRED ➝ responds to L-lysine
Tx: symptomatic
Transmission: direct contact/droplets
Vx: inavtivated/atten in combos BUT DO NOT PREVENT INFECTION ONLY LESSEN DZ; recombinant vx may protect against herpes and calci
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Check yo'self before you wreck yo'self- CATS

Question Answer
How to cell Feline Rhinotracheitis & Calici apart?Only Herpes (rhino) responds to L-lysine tx, also Calici has more ORAL ULCERS, & HERPES (rhino) has the KERATITIS
Most common cause of non-accidental death in cats?FeLV
What can cause uveitis in cats?FIV, FeLV & FIP (uveitis has V in it, & so does fiV & felV, & then FIP is just aggregates in the eye so it makes sense)
Which feline viruses causes persistent viremia?FIV, FeLV
What should you know about tests for FeLV?NO SEROLOGY (want to do Ag not Ab detection) (LV is something you detect directly- so no serology)
What is hardy test used for? What does it test?FeLV- tests for P27 in the cytoplasm of peripheral blood leukocytes (people LV ed hardy)
FOCMA & P27 are which dz?FeLV (LV to FOC)
How is Feline Sarcoma causing neoplasm, & which neoplasm is it causing?Fibrosarcoma, & its replication defective v-oncogene carrier that is helped by FeLV (REMEMBER PATH)
What’s the virus which mutates into FIP?Coronavirus
Which dz is Rivalta test for?FIP (check to see if it's an exudate- pos for exudate, prolly pos for FIP) (think of travolta dancing in a cats fluid filled abdomen)
If I say hyperglobulinemia, you thinkFIP
I say cerebellar hypoplasia, you thinkFeline Panleukopenia Virus, in kittens 2wk before birth to 2wk after birth
3 big ways FeLV presents?Neoplasia, anemia, & immunopathology
Which feline virus likes to hang out in the macrophages?FIP (1 of the many reasons FIP is not contagious)
Which feline virus does hemagglutination?Panleukopenia
Which cat virus has a vx that ISNT attenuated?FeLV (prolly bc it's too dangerous. the other 1 that probably would, would be FIV, but FIV doesnt HAVE A VX)
Queens in acute infxn state can infect kittens through colostrum & milk.FIV
3-stage infxnFIV
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Check yo'self before you wreck yo'self- DOGS

Question Answer
Which diagnostic test is pointless in Rabies?Serology. By the time it can be detected by this method, it's basically too late
Gold standard Rabies test***GOLD STANDARD TEST IS DFA- DIRECT FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TEST*** (this is post mortem though. Negri bodies are also pathognomonic, but are only present in like 70% of cases)
What virus family/genus causes Distemper?Paramyxoviridae, Morbillivirus genus
Dzs which cause Leukopenia?Distemper & Parvo
Which dz is pantropic?Distemper
Impression smears of conjunctiva or peripheral blood lymphocytes in which dzDistemper (think about how it's pantropic, so, its all up in the eye which is a weird tissue) (id lose my temper if someone put a glass slide on my eye, too)
Major 3 systems involved w/ puppy Distemper, & 1 other big signResp, enteric, CNS. & severe lymphopenia (so angry you scream w/ your brain, & your lungs, & your butt (diarrhea), & then all your WBCs give up)
Forms syncytiums & intracytoplasmic & intranuclear inclusion bodies?Distemper
What is the etiological agent of ICH (Infectious Canine Hepatitis?)Canine Adenovirus ****1**** belongs to the Mastadenovirus genus in the Adenoviridae family
Blue-eye is?Canine Infectious Hepatitis (CAV-1)
When can you vaccinate other dogs through the vx dogs pee?For CAV-2(vx is 2, dz is 1, cross protection & no blue eye so like 2)
Paracrystalline arrays?CAV-1 aka Canine Infectious Hepatitis, this is the array formed by the intranuclear inclusion bodies it leaves behind
Test for Parvo is what, & detects what?Snap for ANTIGEN (super acute, Abs havent caught up)
No serology (looking for Abs) in which dz's?Rabies, Parvo (in both cases, dont have time to look for Abs that might have formed & shit)
Which dog dz causes hemagglutination?PARVO (remember that same thing in cats w/ Panleukopenia virus, which is also Parvo)
Bloody diarrhea?Parvo, CAV-1, Distemper
Which doesnt have an antigen ELISA?Canine Influenza (segmented so always changing the antigen, just look for Abs)
A dog got Canine Influenza, & it keeps coughing (bc mild Kennel Cough can be a sign of a mild case) after everything else is back to normal. Can you bring him to visit your aunts dog?Maybe, bc continuous cough doesnt mean viral shedding is happening
Which 1 is usually worse- Canine Influenza, or Canine Parainfluenza?Parainfluenza. Influenza is mostly flu like symptoms, Parainfluenza has a fever for up to 2 weeks & can possibly have CNS problems too
Which 2 dzs are both Paramyxoviridae?Distemper & Parainfluenza
Herpes in cats vs dogsCats is a URI, in dogs get STDs → hemorrhaging puppies (RARELY Kennel Cough). Cats win the Herpes round.
Why is Herpes so bad in puppies?LOWER BODY TEMP → more spread "keep them puppies warm"
Direct IF is gold standard for what dz?Rabies
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