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VIRO MT EQ

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isabellepjk's version from 2017-10-10 15:52

Equine

Question Answer
Equine Infectious AnemiaAKA Swamp Fever
Systemic
Retroviridae/Lentivirus (RNA, Env)
Trans: HORIZONTAL and VERTICAL; blood feeding insects/stable fly/horse fly; peaks in summer/fall; through placenta or milk
Special: can be iatrogenic through needles or transfusion; animals that show signs are more likely to transmit
Pathogen: in LEUKOCYTES, vasculitis and glomerulpnephritis, hems d/t thrombocytopenia, GP90
Dx: COGGINS (but can give false negatives), serology
Dz/clin signs: 4 stages; 1- anemia, jaundice, blood feces, petechial hem of mucosa; 2- subacute; 3- episodes in those recovered, 4- cx dz=fever, cachexia, ventral edema
Vx: NO
Control: isolate positives, don't need to kill!!!
Equine ArteritisArteriviridae (RNA, enveloped) - systemic
Special: ABORTIONS, horses are the only hosts, during outbreak-handler hygiene and separate infected etc
Transm: shed in resp tract and resistant to envrio; stallions can be long-term shedders and spread venereally; mares can shed with DIRECT CONTACT; fomites; fetal fluids from abortion; TRANSPLACENTAL
Clin signs/dz: Sporadic abortion at 5-10ms, and mild UR signs, Leukopenia, cjvts, purulent discharge (d/t secondary bacterial infection), PALPEBRAL EDEMA, photophobia, skin rash; foals and yearlings can die from pneumonia; Edema in limbs, vt abd, scrotum/prepuce, abd pain;
Pathogen: replicates in epithelial cells
Dz: Needs to differentiate from influenza and herpes; RT-PCR, nasopharyngeal swabs, blood, urine, feces; ELISA Abs-paired
VX: Breeding stallions 60 days before breeding season, Mares 3 weeks before breeding and NOT during last two months of preg; foals can be vx 6-8months
Equine Encephalitides (EEE, WEE, VEE)Togaviridae (RNA, Enveloped) - CNS dz
Alphavirus
ZOONOTIC
Special: Bords and reservoirs, humans and horses are dead end; high mortality
Pathogenesis: 2nd viremia (high titer) important for transmission and CNS invasion ➝ causes enceph BUT not high enough for vector transm
Dz/Clin signs: Neuro signs, WIDE STANCE, encephalitis, sometimes dead, neuro seq, HEAD PRESSING, circling, NEURO SEQUELAE
Dx: IgM ELISA and seroneutr; post mortem RT-PCR,
DDx: Rabies, Equine herpes 1, West Nile virus
Vx: inactivated- 2 doses ten days apart; foals at 3, 4, and 6months. IMMUNITY FOR LIFE; mosquito control
West Nile EncephalitisFlaviviridae (RNA, env) - CNS dz
ZOONOTIC AND ARBOVIRUS
Birds are regular hosts and mosquitos give is to horses
Clin signs/Dz: most are asymptomatic but a few have neuro signs and some may die
Dx: RT-PCR, IHC, IF, isolation, IgM ELISA/Complement fixation
Vx: recombinant and DNA vx
Control: vectors
Geog: EXPANDING
Equine InfluenzaOrthomyxo (RNA, env) - Resp dz
SEGEMENTED with Rod HA and mushroom NA peplomers
Special: 100% infection rate in unvaccinated horses with no prior exposure; one horse gets infected and suddenly they are all infected! Low mortality but HIGH AF MORBIDITY; PROLONGED FEVER IN MARES=ABORTION
Pathogen: UPPER AND LOWER RESP TRACT; secondary infections ➝ GUTTRAL POUCH, bronchopneumonia
Clin signs/Dz: Fever, Dry hacking cough, cjvts, dec eating/drinking;
Dx: Nasal mucus/lung material (LATE stage) for viral isolation; hemaggln
DDx: Herpes 1 and 4 vs adenovirus
Vx: vaccines maybe more than once a year
Control: quarantine for 4 weeks, isolate, disinfect
Equine RhinopneumonitisHerpes 4 (DNA Enveloped) Resp Dz
INCLUSION BODIES
Clin signs/dz: acute resp dz in foals, weanlings and yearlings; reactivation of latent virus in adults; adults shed without clinical signs ➝might be source of infection; profuse serous nasal discharge which later becomes mucopurulent; foals usually recover well but mild/subclinical infections are common; with poor hygiene or crowding/stress there might be bronchopneumonia and death
Dx: TYPE SPECIFIC isolation, PCR, serology, etc
Combo vx which protects clinical signs and not dz
Transmis: direct contact
Adenovirus PneumoniaAdenovirdiae, DNA/Naked - Resp Dz
INCLUSION BODIES
Clin signs/dz: mostly asymptomatic or milid U/LRD; fever, nasal discharge, cough; secondary bact infections ➝ mucopuruluent discharge and worse cough
Special: SCIDS in ARABIANS (Absence of B and T cells), foals are succumb after 6m when maternal Abs leave
Pathogen: with SCID with concurrent broncholoitis and pneumonia- pancreas, renal, bladder, and intestinal epithelial cells also get fucked.
dx: no real point because they die but can isolate, Serology, ELISA, PCR,
No control
Transm: direct/indirect
NO VX
Equine Papillomatosis
(prob not on)
Papoviridae (DNA Naked) -Skin dz
usually regresses in 1-9 months
Direct transmission
Equine SarcoidPapovoridae (DNA, Naked) -BOVINE PAPILLO suspected- Skin dz
Special: Look like skin tumors but do not metastasize, locally invasive, persist for life, require tx
Transm: NOT DIRECT CONTACT,
Tx: BCG, sx, laser,
Vesicular StomititisRhabdo/Vesiculovirus (RNA, env) -Skin dz
DDX: foot and mouth dz ➝ affects RUMS and pigs too
Clin signs/Dz: enters through broke skin mucosa; profuse salivation, lameness, vesicles and oral ulcers/lips/tongue; CORONARY BANDS; local vesiculation and interstitial edema
transm: fomites, arthropods
Special: healing is rapid and complete, reinfection can occur; not systemic or viremic
dx: NOTIFIABLE, virus isolation
Control: vx are available, control arthropods
Equine AbortionHerpes 1 (DNA, Env) - Repro/Neonate dz
INCLUSION BODIES
Clin signs/Dz: Resp infection ➝ LATE ABORTION (Last four months, but as early as 4 months). NO REAL SIGNS; perinatal infection results in fatal generalized dz; encephalitis sporadically or as epidemics with abortion and resp dz; ataxia, limb paralysis; urinary incontinence causing myelopathy
Dx: Anything really
Vx: attenuated and inactivated; inactivated herpes 1 and 4 combo is used
Equine Coital ExanthemaHerpes 3 (DNA, enveloped) Repro/Neonate dz
INCLUSION BODIES
Clin Signs/Dz: acute/mild pustules and ulcerations in genitals; lesions on lips of babies (from drinking from teats) possible; NO ABORTION or SYSTEMIC SIGNS;
Transm: direct and sexual contacta and fomites; decreased libido in stallions;
Special: No effect on fertility
Dx: Carriers can be IDd by pigment loss on the black skin of genitals, Serology, PCR
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ALL

Question Answer
INCLUSION BODIESCANINE- Distemper/paramyx; Hepatitis/Adeno; Parvo; Herpes 1
Feline- Feline Parvo; Rhinotracheitis
Eq-Eq abortion/herpes; Adenovirus
Which do NOT have vxKennel cough doesn't have a specific one, FIV/P is controversial, Papillo is autovx, Eq infectious anemia, Adeno/SCIDS
Which do Hemaggln?Adeno/hepatitis, parvo, feline parvo, Eq influenza, Eq adeno
ZOONOTICRabies, EEE, WEE, VEE, WNV
Horse abortionsEAV, Eq influenza, Eq abortion/herpes
Fomite transmissionVesicular stomatitis, Equine Abortion, Eq coital exanthema, Eq arteritis, NO DOGS DZ, Calcivirus
Iatrogenic transmissino (needles, instruments, etc)Equine Infectious Anemia, equine abortion, FeLv,
memorize

CHECK YO SELF

Question Answer
Xmission via horse fly & stable fly (& is its xmission mechanical or arbo)?Mechanical xmission-EIA (flying HIV would be horrible)
Virus persists in leukocytesEIA (HIV=WBCS) (EVA also infects macrophages)
Acute, subacute, recovered & chronic stagesEIA
Vasculitis & glomerulonephritis mediated by immune complexesEIA (anemia always affects the kidney, this is just...a little further. also remember that EIA=COGS=immune complexes)
Mild resp dz & abortionEVA (but Equine Influenza causes resp & the fever will cause abortion, also Equine Abortion causes resp signs & abortion)
BIRDS are the reservoir hostEquine Encephalitis, West Nile Encephalitis
Horses & humans are dead end hostsEquine Encephalitis, West Nile Encephalitis
If you see a horse pressing its head against the corner of the stall, what are you thinking?Eq Encephalitis primarily (or West Nile, or abortion...they all can cause Encephalitis)
If you see abnormal positioning, movement, & behavior can be...West Nile, Rabies, EHV-1 (abortion) & Equine Encephalitis
Large peplomers of 2 kinds: rod-shaped HA (hemagglutinin) & mushroom shape NA (neuroaminidase)Equine Influenza (Orthomyxoviridae)
Equine Herpesvirus 4 causes what?Equine Rhinopneumonitis
Paracrystaline arraysAdenovirus Pneumonia
Can lead to severe dz w/ cell destruction in the pancreas, salivary glands, renal, bladder & intestinal epithelium in SCID foals?Adenovirus Pneumonia
What is a SCID foal?Arabian foal w/ a 1° Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Dz (absence of B & T cells)
Nothing is done to try to control this infxnAdenovirus Pneumonia
Equine Herpes Virus 1 (EHV-1) is what dz?Equine Abortion
Abortion occurring in last 4mo of pregEquine Abortion (EHV-1)
Urinary incontinence due to virus myelopathyEquine Abortion (EHV-1)
Ab-Ag complexes causing vasculitisEHV-1 (Equine Abortion) & EIA
Possible ocular dzEHV-1 (Equine Abortion) (has AbAg & can damage retinal BVs?)(Herpes & eyes. think cats)
Repro tract dz w/ no abortions, no effect on fertilityEHV-3, aka Equine Coital Exanthema (3 looks like backwards E)
EHV-1 vs EHV-3?1= Equine Abortion (Abortion)
3= Equine Coital Exanthema (NO abortion)
How long does colostrum protect a foal? Explain the diff situations w/ SCIDsColostrum usually protects for 3-6 mo. If SCIDs foal drinks plenty of colostrum, won’t die of Adenovirus Pneumonia until AFTER 3-6 mo. If doesn’t drink ENOUGH, will have subclinical dz until 3-6 mo. If no colostrum, dies very soon after birth
ENCEPHALITISEquine Encephalitis, West Nile Encephalitis, Equine Abortion (EHV-1)
SEGMENTED VIRAL GENOMEEquine Influenza
ABORTIONEVA, EHV-1 (Equine Abortion), Equine Influenza (fever) (NOTE: EHV-3 aka Equine Coital Exanthema does NOT CAUSE ABORTION!!!)
NO VXEIA
ZOONOTICEquine Encephalitis, West Nile Encephalitis
ARBOVIRUSESEquine Encephalitis, West Nile Encephalitis
INSECT VECTOR BUT NOT ARBOVIRUSEIA (horse & stable flies) & Vesicular Stomatitis (xmitted mechanically by arthropods)
DDx for West Nile virus?EEE, WEE, Rabies, & EHV-1 (abortion & CNS signs)
EEE & WEE xmitted by what?Mosquitos
memorize