Viro - Midterm 5

drraythe's version from 2015-08-30 21:46

Feline Panleukopenia Virus

Question Answer
Etiologic agent? Describe the genome, is it naked or enveloped?Parvovirus, Parvoviridae. Linear ssDNA. Naked
Where (what cells) does Feline Panleukopenia Virus like to hang out in? How can you histologically distinguish it?LIKES S-PHASE CELLS (it is a PARVOVIRUS). Also leaves INTRANUCLEAR (DNA) INCLUSION BODIES
How easy is it to disinfect Feline Panleukopenia Virus?VERY STABLE IN ENVIRO (naked!) it can resist 60C for 1 hr & pH 3 to 9
What should you know about Feline Panleukopenia Virus & blood?It can hemagglutinate
What are some of the dz/syndromes that Feline Panleukopenia Virus can cause?Cerebellar Hypoplasia, Enteritis, Panleukopenia
How is the brain affected by Feline Panleukopenia Virus, & when? Results?CEREBELLAR (not the whole brain!!!) hypoplasia, & its 2 weeks before birth to 2 weeks after birth when this happens. RESULTS IN PERMANENT ATAXIA
Clinical signs of Panleukopenia virus?Fever, vomiting, bloody diarrhea → dehydration, PROFOUND LEUKOPENIA at onset of symptoms, cerebellar hypoplasia in kittens 2wk before birth to 2 weeks after birth.
Does Panleukopenia affect the intestines?YES → IT IS PARVOVIRUS. Rapidly replicating epithelial cells in the crypts of Lieberkühn are very susceptible to virus infxn. There is also loss of cells from the villus tips – which are greatly shortened. The non-absorptive villi lead to diarrhea
Gross lesions of Panleukopenia virus?If Enteritis → segmental thickening & necrosis. Cerebellar hypoplasia in the case of the kittens, bone marrow pale & fluid
Microscopic appearance of Panleukopenia virus?Blunted intestinal villi, crypts are dilated/distended, intranuclear inclusion bodies
How can you diagnose Feline Panleukopenia Virus? (presumptive/official test)Clinical signs, PANLEUKOPENIA are for presumptive diagnosis. To confirm you can use PCR/ELISA /haemagglutination/virus isolation
How is Panleukopenia transmitted? How contagious is it?HIGHLY CONTAGIOUS. Can be direct or via fomites (naked virus) → ENVIRO CONTAMINATION THAT IS HARD TO DISINFECT, also fleas & humans can act as mechanical vectors. Virus can be shed in feces, urine, vomitus & saliva.
How can we control Feline Panleukopenia Virus?VX!!!! There is attenuated or inactivated. INACTIVATED should be given to kittens & preggo cats.
How do you disinfect Feline Panleukopenia Virus?Disinfxn: 1:32 dilution of sodium hypochlorite (not effective for organic matter, only clean surfaces)

Feline Rhinotracheitis Virus

Question Answer
Etiologic agent? (Is it enveloped or naked?)HERPESVIRIDAE. DNA. Enveloped. (Half the time, a URI could also be caused by Calicivirus)
Any histological giveaways?Intranuclear inclusion bodies.
What kind of dz does this virus cause? Does age play a role at all? What age?Dz of upper resp tract, usually in the first year of life, although all ages can be affected. Over 6mo old, the dz usually is mild or subclinical
Clinical signs of Feline Rhinotracheitis Virus?Sneezing, coughing, profuse serous nasal & ocular discharges. Also Keratitis(inflamed cornea) is associated w/ punctuate corneal ulcers (Herpes rhino will stab you in the eye)
Diagnosis of Feline Rhinotracheitis Virus?Usually no definitive diagnosis is needed. Responds to L-lysine treatment is sufficient (only Herpes responds, not Calici, so then you know which it is that's causing the URI.). If death, intranuclear inclusion bodies will also clue you in.
Control of Feline Rhinotracheitis Virus?Inactivated & attenuated vaccines are usually used in combo vaccines; these lessen the dz but do not prevent infxn (vaccine will slow down the rhino but not stop it)

Feline Calicivirus (FCV)

Question Answer
Etiologic agentCaliciviridae, SS+ RNA, NAKED (→ lysis to exit cell)
How common is Calicivirus? How common is the clinical dz?By year 1 seroprevalence is almost 100%. Clinical dz is RARE in cats older than 1 yr old. (Cali is almost 100% serious)
What dz does Feline Calicivirus cause?URI (half the time it's Herpes → Rhinotracheitis, half the time it's Calici)
How is it transmitted? Explain what is going on w/ the transmitters (infected cats)Aerosol & fomites. The recovery of the infxn individual often leads to a CARRIER STATE most of the time → shed virus from the oropharynx for life (which is prolly why seroprev is like 100 by 1yr). This shedding is continuous in opposition to Herpesvirus whose shedding is intermittent
What are 2 clinical differences between Herpes URI & Calici URI?Calici more often has extensive ULCERS in on the tongue/mouth/oropharynx , & there are NOT corneal ulcers (keratitis) in Calici, like there are in Herpes
Diagnosis of FCV?Presumptive diagnosis is based on clinical presentation (more oral ulcers, no keratitis also, also Calici wouldn't respond to L-lysine tx & Herpes would)
Control of FCV?Inactivated & attenuated vaccines are usually used in combo vaccines w/ Herpesvirus 1
What should you know about various strains of FCV?Diff strains have diff virulence.
Shedding of FCV vs Feline Herpes Rhinotracheitis?Herpes = intermittent
Calici = continuous.

Check yo'self before you wreck yo'self- CATS

Question Answer
How to cell Feline Rhinotracheitis & Calici apart?Only Herpes (rhino) responds to L-lysine tx, also Calici has more ORAL ULCERS, & HERPES (rhino) has the KERATITIS
Most common cause of non-accidental death in cats?FeLV
What can cause uveitis in cats?FIV, FeLV & FIP (uveitis has V in it, & so does fiV & felV, & then FIP is just aggregates in the eye so it makes sense)
Which feline viruses causes persistent viremia?FIV, FeLV
What should you know about tests for FeLV?NO SEROLOGY (want to do Ag not Ab detection) (LV is something you detect directly- so no serology)
What is hardy test used for? What does it test?FeLV- tests for P27 in the cytoplasm of peripheral blood leukocytes (people LV ed hardy)
FOCMA & P27 are which dz?FeLV (LV to FOC)
How is Feline Sarcoma causing neoplasm, & which neoplasm is it causing?Fibrosarcoma, & its replication defective v-oncogene carrier that is helped by FeLV (REMEMBER PATH)
What’s the virus which mutates into FIP?Coronavirus
Which dz is Rivalta test for?FIP (check to see if it's an exudate- pos for exudate, prolly pos for FIP) (think of travolta dancing in a cats fluid filled abdomen)
If I say hyperglobulinemia, you thinkFIP
I say cerebellar hypoplasia, you thinkFeline Panleukopenia Virus, in kittens 2wk before birth to 2wk after birth
3 big ways FeLV presents?Neoplasia, anemia, & immunopathology
Which feline virus likes to hang out in the macrophages?FIP (1 of the many reasons FIP is not contagious)
Which feline virus does hemagglutination?Panleukopenia
Which cat virus has a vx that ISNT attenuated?FeLV (prolly bc it's too dangerous. the other 1 that probably would, would be FIV, but FIV doesnt HAVE A VX)
Queens in acute infxn state can infect kittens through colostrum & milk.FIV
3-stage infxnFIV

Check yo'self before you wreck yo'self- DOGS

Question Answer
Which diagnostic test is pointless in Rabies?Serology. By the time it can be detected by this method, it's basically too late
Gold standard Rabies test***GOLD STANDARD TEST IS DFA- DIRECT FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TEST*** (this is post mortem though. Negri bodies are also pathognomonic, but are only present in like 70% of cases)
Which dog virus is like "oh my god PLEASE KEEP BOOSTERING"Distemper (also Parvo)
What virus family/genus causes Distemper?Paramyxoviridae, Morbillivirus genus
Which dz causes enamel hypoplasia?Distemper
Hard pad dz is part of?Distemper
Dzs which cause Leukopenia?Distemper & Parvo
2 forms of Distemper older dogs, who possibly never had symptoms of Distemper, might getOld Dog Encephalitis & Hard Pad Dz
Which dz is pantropic?Distemper
Impression smears of conjunctiva or peripheral blood lymphocytes in which dzDistemper (think about how it's pantropic, so, its all up in the eye which is a weird tissue) (id lose my temper if someone put a glass slide on my eye, too)
Major 3 systems involved w/ puppy Distemper, & 1 other big signResp, enteric, CNS. & severe lymphopenia (so angry you scream w/ your brain, & your lungs, & your butt (diarrhea), & then all your WBCs give up)
Forms syncytiums & intracytoplasmic & intranuclear inclusion bodies?Distemper
What is the etiological agent of ICH (Infectious Canine Hepatitis?)Canine Adenovirus ****1**** belongs to the Mastadenovirus genus in the Adenoviridae family
Blue-eye is?Canine Infectious Hepatitis (CAV-1)
When can you vaccinate other dogs through the vx dogs pee?For CAV-2(vx is 2, dz is 1, cross protection & no blue eye so like 2)
Paracrystalline arrays?CAV-1 aka Canine Infectious Hepatitis, this is the array formed by the intranuclear inclusion bodies it leaves behind
Test for Parvo is what, & detects what?Snap for ANTIGEN (super acute, Abs havent caught up)
No serology (looking for Abs) in which dz's?Rabies, Parvo (in both cases, dont have time to look for Abs that might have formed & shit)
Which dog dz causes hemagglutination?PARVO (remember that same thing in cats w/ Panleukopenia virus, which is also Parvo)
Bloody diarrhea?Parvo, CAV-1, Distemper
Which doesnt have an antigen ELISA?Canine Influenza (segmented so always changing the antigen, just look for Abs)
A dog got Canine Influenza, & it keeps coughing (bc mild Kennel Cough can be a sign of a mild case) after everything else is back to normal. Can you bring him to visit your aunts dog?Maybe, bc continuous cough doesnt mean viral shedding is happening
Which 1 is usually worse- Canine Influenza, or Canine Parainfluenza?Parainfluenza. Influenza is mostly flu like symptoms, Parainfluenza has a fever for up to 2 weeks & can possibly have CNS problems too
Which 2 dzs are both Paramyxoviridae?Distemper & Parainfluenza
Herpes in cats vs dogsCats is a URI, in dogs get STDs → hemorrhaging puppies (RARELY Kennel Cough). Cats win the Herpes round.
Why is Herpes so bad in puppies?LOWER BODY TEMP → more spread "keep them puppies warm"
Direct IF is gold standard for what dz?Rabies