Etiologic agent? Describe the genome, is it naked or enveloped?
Parvovirus, Parvoviridae. Linear ssDNA. Naked
Where (what cells) does Feline Panleukopenia Virus like to hang out in? How can you histologically distinguish it?
LIKES S-PHASE CELLS (it is a PARVOVIRUS). Also leaves INTRANUCLEAR (DNA) INCLUSION BODIES
How easy is it to disinfect Feline Panleukopenia Virus?
VERY STABLE IN ENVIRO (naked!) it can resist 60C for 1 hr & pH 3 to 9
What should you know about Feline Panleukopenia Virus & blood?
It can hemagglutinate
What are some of the dz/syndromes that Feline Panleukopenia Virus can cause?
Cerebellar Hypoplasia, Enteritis, Panleukopenia
How is the brain affected by Feline Panleukopenia Virus, & when? Results?
CEREBELLAR (not the whole brain!!!) hypoplasia, & its 2 weeks before birth to 2 weeks after birth when this happens. RESULTS IN PERMANENT ATAXIA
Clinical signs of Panleukopenia virus?
Fever, vomiting, bloody diarrhea → dehydration, PROFOUND LEUKOPENIA at onset of symptoms, cerebellar hypoplasia in kittens 2wk before birth to 2 weeks after birth.
Does Panleukopenia affect the intestines?
YES → IT IS PARVOVIRUS. Rapidly replicating epithelial cells in the crypts of Lieberkühn are very susceptible to virus infxn. There is also loss of cells from the villus tips – which are greatly shortened. The non-absorptive villi lead to diarrhea
Gross lesions of Panleukopenia virus?
If Enteritis → segmental thickening & necrosis. Cerebellar hypoplasia in the case of the kittens, bone marrow pale & fluid
Microscopic appearance of Panleukopenia virus?
Blunted intestinal villi, crypts are dilated/distended, intranuclear inclusion bodies
How can you diagnose Feline Panleukopenia Virus? (presumptive/official test)
Clinical signs, PANLEUKOPENIA are for presumptive diagnosis. To confirm you can use PCR/ELISA /haemagglutination/virus isolation
How is Panleukopenia transmitted? How contagious is it?
HIGHLY CONTAGIOUS. Can be direct or via fomites (naked virus) → ENVIRO CONTAMINATION THAT IS HARD TO DISINFECT, also fleas & humans can act as mechanical vectors. Virus can be shed in feces, urine, vomitus & saliva.
How can we control Feline Panleukopenia Virus?
VX!!!! There is attenuated or inactivated. INACTIVATED should be given to kittens & preggo cats.
How do you disinfect Feline Panleukopenia Virus?
Disinfxn: 1:32 dilution of sodium hypochlorite (not effective for organic matter, only clean surfaces)
HERPESVIRIDAE. DNA. Enveloped. (Half the time, a URI could also be caused by Calicivirus)
Any histological giveaways?
Intranuclear inclusion bodies.
What kind of dz does this virus cause? Does age play a role at all? What age?
Dz of upper resp tract, usually in the first year of life, although all ages can be affected. Over 6mo old, the dz usually is mild or subclinical
Clinical signs of Feline Rhinotracheitis Virus?
Sneezing, coughing, profuse serous nasal & ocular discharges. Also Keratitis(inflamed cornea) is associated w/ punctuate corneal ulcers (Herpes rhino will stab you in the eye)
Diagnosis of Feline Rhinotracheitis Virus?
Usually no definitive diagnosis is needed. Responds to L-lysine treatment is sufficient (only Herpes responds, not Calici, so then you know which it is that's causing the URI.). If death, intranuclear inclusion bodies will also clue you in.
Control of Feline Rhinotracheitis Virus?
Inactivated & attenuated vaccines are usually used in combo vaccines; these lessen the dz but do not prevent infxn (vaccine will slow down the rhino but not stop it)
Caliciviridae, SS+ RNA, NAKED (→ lysis to exit cell)
How common is Calicivirus? How common is the clinical dz?
By year 1 seroprevalence is almost 100%. Clinical dz is RARE in cats older than 1 yr old. (Cali is almost 100% serious)
What dz does Feline Calicivirus cause?
URI (half the time it's Herpes → Rhinotracheitis, half the time it's Calici)
How is it transmitted? Explain what is going on w/ the transmitters (infected cats)
Aerosol & fomites. The recovery of the infxn individual often leads to a CARRIER STATE most of the time → shed virus from the oropharynx for life (which is prolly why seroprev is like 100 by 1yr). This shedding is continuous in opposition to Herpesvirus whose shedding is intermittent
What are 2 clinical differences between Herpes URI & Calici URI?
Calici more often has extensive ULCERS in on the tongue/mouth/oropharynx , & there are NOT corneal ulcers (keratitis) in Calici, like there are in Herpes
Diagnosis of FCV?
Presumptive diagnosis is based on clinical presentation (more oral ulcers, no keratitis also, also Calici wouldn't respond to L-lysine tx & Herpes would)
Control of FCV?
Inactivated & attenuated vaccines are usually used in combo vaccines w/ Herpesvirus 1
What should you know about various strains of FCV?