The main carriers of Rabies vary from continent to continent. Give some examples (Europe, Middle East, Asia, Africa, N. America, S. America)
Europe: fox/bats (bats might be able to aerosolize it). Middle East: wolf/dog. Asia: dog. Africa: dog, mongoose, antelope. N. America: fox/skunk/raccoon/insectivorous bats. S. America: dog/vampire bats
What are some Rabies-free countries? (6)
UK, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, the continent of Antarctica & small islands as Hawaii.
What does the fact that there are distinct genotypes in the US found imply?
Not much, bc they are ALL THE SAME SEROTYPE, so diagnostic tests work on all, & vx work on all of them
What is the major source of cattle Rabies?
How can Rabies be transmitted?
In man, usually by the bite of an animal (usually dog). Bat caves can facilitate of the aerosolization of the virus. Also organ xplant
What is the incubation time of Rabies? What is it doing during this time?
Virus replicates in the striated or connective tissue at the site of inoculation & enters the peripheral nerves through the neuromuscular junction. Incubation time is 14-90 days but CAN be YEARS
Is Rabies centripetal or centrifugal?
CENTRIPETAL! (Trip in) → goes from peripheral nerves (like near the bite) & moves up them into the CNS (after that it will move centrifugally, to the salivary glands for instance, & thats why the bite is then infective)
What are the 2 clinical forms of Rabies, & who do you usually see in which category?
Although there is widespread CNS involvement, what is weird about Rabies?
Very few neurons infected w/ the virus actually show structural abnormalities
Describe the furious type of Rabies (why are they called furious? what do they do, what cant they do, why is it furious in a biological explanation?)
Restless, nervous, aggressive, no fear of humans & bite everything. Cannot swallow (also called hydrophobia) & there is excessive salivation, exaggerated response to light & sound. Virus reaches the limbic system (replicates extensively & release the cortical control of behavior (furious)
Describe the dum/Paralytic Rabies (biological reasons for this? symptoms? precautions?)
Replication in the neocortex give the Paralytic signs (ataxia, paralysis of throat, inability to swallow, profuse salivation, progression of paralysis, coma & death). Don’t inspect the mouth w/ bare hands!!!!
What are the terminal signs of Rabies? When do they occur, in relation to clinical signs & death?
Terminally there are convulsive seizures, coma & respiratory arrest w/ death occurring 2-14 days after onset of clinical signs. So, by the time you see clinical signs, it's basically too late- rapid progression
*What is the laboratory diagnosis method?
POST MORTEM! The ***GOLD STANDARD TEST IS DFA- DIRECT FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TEST*** if you look at the histopathology, 70% of cases will have Negri bodies, which is pathognomonic
If you want to do a cell culture, how do you gotta do it?
From saliva/infected tissue, & need to inoculate INTRACEREBRALLY into INFANT MICE
*How would you use serology for Rabies?
YOU DONT! It is not useful bc Rabies proteins are highly immunogenic but humoral or cell mediated responses are not stimulated in early stages after bite. By the time they show up enough, it's too late
How is there control of Rabies in urban areas?
Usually canine Rabies, so stray dog control, vaccination of dogs, laboratory diagnosis to confirm cases, surveillance & quarantine of imported animals & public education: Responsible pet ownership
How is there control of Rabies in rural areas?
This is much more difficult to control than canine Rabies. However, there are on-going trials in Europe where bait containing attenuated Rabies vaccine is given to foxes
Most serious problem areas for Rabies?
Central & Northern part of South America, Africa, lower Middle East, & Asia
Paramyxoviridae, Morbillivirus genus (tempers fly when theres a pair-o-mixed up people. it might turn MORBid)
DNA or RNA?
Enveloped or no? Appearance?
Enveloped! Large peplomers, & characteristic herring bone nucleocapsid (man w/ a bad temper wearing a herringbone tie)
*What are some distinct characteristics that this virus histologically shows?
Forms syncytiums & intracytoplasmatic & intranuclear inclusion bodies (you lost your temper so badly you smashed all the cells together & ruined the cytoplasm & nuc.)
How is the mortality/morbidity/level of contagious of Distemper?
Highly contagious (for non vx), w/ high levels of mortality & morbidity
Who is most susceptible to Distemper?
YOUNG ANIMALS, after maternal Abs have dropped (4-6mo) but CAN affect all ages
What is the acute form of Distemper most often seen in puppies? (Describe)
Severe multisystemic (mainly respiratory, enteric & CNS) severe lymphopenia & death
What form of Distemper often affects older dogs? (Describe, what happens, prog?)
"Old dog Encephalitis" → (years after initial infxn, virus persists in the CNS) fatal
What are the 2 presentations of Distemper that are kind of odd
(1) HARD PAD DZ → Hyperkeratosis of foot pads & nose (2) Enamel hypoplasia (you lost your temper so bad you ground the enamel right off your teeth & punched things until you had huge calluses)
Describe some of the clinical signs, & how they correlate
Anorexia, catarrah, Conjunctivitis & depression are usually first seen. Biphasic fever (up to 105.8 F), second peak corresponds to onset of *severe Leukopenia* & other clinical signs. Some dogs have more GI than resp, for others it's the opposite. (BIpolar leads to temper tantrums-throw away all your WBCs in rage)
Describe the CNS signs (also remember the other major components are resp & GI signs)
B/H CHANGES, forced movements, local myoclonic (involuntary muscle contractions), tonic-clonic spasms, epileptic-type attacks, ataxia or paresis (obv losing your temper is a b/h thing, losing it till you seizure is redic)
What is the duration of Distemper like?
Varies DEPENDING ON HOST IMMUNE RESPONSE & possible complications of 2⁰ bacterial infxns (a kids temper tantrum's lifespan will depend on how you react to it)
Describe the subacute neurological form
May follow any of the acute or appear after subclinical infxn. It’s characterized by frank Encephalitis w/ convulsions & most surviving dogs have permanent CNS sequelae (nervous ticks or involuntary leg movements) (Frank had a bad temper in the SUBway, he lost his mind)
What are the 2 late forms (may occur in dogs w/ no history of clinical Distemper dz) of Distemper?
The old dog Encephalitis & the hard pad dz
What is pantropic? Is Distemper pantropic?
AFFECTS ALL TISSUES. & yes it is. (So, outcome depends on immune response)
Diagnosis of severe Distemper dz the signs (symptoms) are pathognomonic
(Respiratory, enteric, CNS), bloodwork shows marked lymphopenia but laboratory confirmation is needed
*If you want to do antigen detection for Distemper, where do you take what samples, & when?
If antemortem (before death)- impression smears of conjunctiva or peripheral blood lymphocytes. If postmortem- lung, stomach, intestinal or bladder (I'd lose my temper if you poked me in the eye, too)
*How is Distemper transmitted? When/how is it shed?
(Enveloped) so *****direct***** contact required, only viable for a short amt of time. Mainly through droplets & aerosols. *****This virus is shed in all secretions & excretions from the 5th day of infxn (before onset of clinical signs) & continues for weeks*** (ID LOSE MY TEMPER TOO, IF SOMEONE SNEEZED IN MY FACE. have a temper like 5 does)
Which dog is more at risk for Distemper: a farm dog, or apartment in the city dog?
There is herd immunity in urban dogs, but rural dogs are isolated for outbreaks occur more frequently
What must you know about the vx for Distemper?
YOU NEED TO KEEP BOOSTERING!!! Young are at risk, but you dont know when the maternal Abs are gonna stop messing w/ the vx
*What is the etiological agent of ICH? (Family & genus)
Canine Adenovirus ****1**** belongs to the Mastadenovirus genus in the Adenoviridae family (the LIVER, I AdenoED, as the MASTA organ- hes #1)
DNA or RNA?
DNA, DS, linear
Enveloped or naked?
NAKED, have penton fibers (your liver can make fibers)
Histologically distinguishing marks?
Intranuclear inclusion bodies are found sometimes forming large Paracrystalline arrays (visualize a liver made out of the finest crystal)
Clinical signs of Canine hepatitis in MOST cases?
Most CAV-1 infxns are asymptomatic or present as undifferentiated resp (WUTTTT) dz
Describe the Peracute dz of Infectious Canine Hepatitis
Death in 4 hrs w/ no other signs (pretty effin real deathtime)
describe the Acute dz of ICH
(May be fatal) vomiting, bloody diarrhea, petechial hemorrhages in the gums, pale mucous membranes & jaundice (GI signs bc liver has to do w/ that, then bleeding stuff & icterus, bc liver has to do w/ that)
*What is a distinguishing sign of CAV-1, & what situations cause this?
****BLUE EYE****!! (Bilateral corneal edema) In convalescent stages of natural infxn & after a week post live-attenuated CAV-1 vaccination. Will go away on its own. Due to AbAg complexes (infect the liver till its blue)
What are some lab diagnostic techniques for canine hepatitis?
PCR of oropharynx/conjunctiva. serology w/ Ab ELISA (PS: check your liver)
How is CAV-1 usually transmitted? Time frame?
Viruria = Major source of transmission, + feces & saliva. Virus is shed in urine up to 6mo (pee your liver out-thats pretty sick. 6months?? evil)
Explain the vx (2 points)
Now vaccinate against CAV-2 (crossprotection) to prevent the corneal edema w/ CAV-1 vaccine. ALSO the attenuated viral vaccine is shed, secondarily immunizing other dogs& creating herd immunity
Naked (very stable, resist 60ºC for an hour & pH 3 to 9)
Specific ways to ID this virus? (Not lab test)
Replicates in **DIVIDING CELLS**! & leave large intranuclear inclusion bodies! & hemagglutinate
3 different age-related dz syndromes? (What are the ages, what is the syndrome)
(1) Generalized neonatal dz syndrome (rare) (2) The myocarditis syndrome is usually recognized in pups (4-8 wks) by sudden death (usually w/o any other clinical signs) (3) The Leukopenia/Enteritis syndrome most common in pups 8-12 wks old
What are some of the clinical signs of the Leukopenia/Enteritis syndrome?
Vomiting is usually the first sign, anorexia, lethargy & diarrhea follow. Dehydration occurs rapidly. Feces can vary between being streaked w/ blood to being frankly hemorrhagic & remain fluid until recovery or death, which occurs usually in young pups or untreated dogs bc of dehydration or endotoxemia
Pathogenesis of Canine Parvovirus (wheres it start, wheres it go, what happens then....)
The virus entry is via the oropharynx; initial replication occurs in tonsils & regional lymph nodes, viremia occurs by day 2, then spreads to thymus, spleen & bone marrow, where cells of the myeloid, erythroid & megakaryocytic series are destroyed
What do these viruses require of the host cells?
THEY MUST BE IN S-PHASE (replication phase)
How is the recovery from Parvovirus? (explain diff situations & time frames)
IF they survive, recovery is rapid (neutralizing antibodies are detected by day 3-5 & have high titer by day 7, regeneration of affected tissues is relatively rapid, virus clears rapidly (day 6-8) & shedding stops at the same time). IF the myocarditis syndrome, will continue to have heart probs for life
What is the most common lab diagnosis of Parvo?
IN HOUSE SNAP TEST! It detects the **antigen**!!!!!
How do you control Parvo?
**COMPLETE** VX SCHEDULE! Keep pups away from parks etc until complete vaccination is achieved, quarantine+disinfect contaminated areas w/ bleach