Viro - Equine 2

drraythe's version from 2015-08-30 22:34

Adenovirus Pneumonia

Question Answer
Etiological agent? DNA or RNA? Enveloped or naked?Adenoviridae. DNA, naked with huge penton fibers sticking out of each vertici
Unique structure of the virus?PENTON FIBERS for Adenoviridae (ADed a pen to a virus to write out the SCID foals)
Microscopic giveaways a cell is infected w/ Adenovirus Pneumonia?Intranuclear inclusion bodies & paracrystaline arrays (Arabian w/ the SCIDs will poop crystals)
Are Adenovirus Pneumonia infxns usually severe, or mild?In horses most Adenovirus infxns are asymptomatic or mildly affect the upper & lower respiratory tract
Usual clinical symptoms of Adenovirus Pneumonia?Mild/asymptomatic upper & lower resp infxn
Does Adenovirus Pneumonia affect upper, lower or both resp tracts?Both
What is a SCID foal?Arabian foal w/ a 1° Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Dz (SCID) (absence of B & T cells)
When is an Adenovirus Pneumonia more severe, & what are the signs?In a SCID foal they will be much more severe than just the bronchiolitis & pneumonia. There will also be cell destruction in the pancreas, salivary glands, renal, bladder & intestinal epithelium
How do you dx Adenovirus Pneumonia?Ag ELISA & PCR, serology, & virus isolation
How do you control this?None!
Systemic or specific body system affected?Resp

Equine Abortion

Question Answer
Etiological agent? DNA or RNA? Enveloped or naked?Equine Herpes Virus **1** (EHV-1), DNA, enveloped (abortion is #1)
Cellular giveaways of infxn w/ EHV-1?Intranuclear inclusion bodies
Clinical signs?Resp infxn (similar to EHV-4 aka Equine Rhinopneumonitis) & then abortion. (Generalized fatal dz if perinatal infxn), sporadically there will be Encephalitis (or as epidemics in association w/ abortion & respiratory dz)
When does the abortion usually occur?Last 4 mo of preg
What kind of complications & signs come w/ Equine Abortion?None. No complications & no pre-monitory signs
In what situation can EHV-1 cause a fatal generalized dz?Perinatal infxn (during pregnancy or delivery)
Aside from respiratory & abortion, what other body system is affected by EHV-1? How common is this, & what are the clinical signs?CNS → Encephalitis. Can happen sporadically or as epidemics in association w/ abortion & respiratory dz. Clinical signs of this can be ataxia, recumbency, limb paralysis, death (Herpes can get into nerves)
What is a special red flag symptom of this dz?Urinary incontinence due to virus myelopathy (fetal & urinary incontinence)
Explain how (pathogenesis) the EHV-1 causes the neurological dz (like the Encephalitis) & abortionViremia → vasculitis of the CNS BVs causing the neurological dz (caused by vasculitis, ischemia & hemorrhagic infarcts) is believed to be due to Ag-Ab complexes. The viremia also can infect the gravid uterus & infect the fetus, causing abortion (it also spreads to other organs, of course)
What is the resp problem caused by EHV-1 called? How dangerous is it? What other symptom/dz might be present (unrelated to resp)Pulmonary Vasculotropic EHV-1 infxn causes respiratory distress w/ high mortality. Ocular dz might also be present (serous ocular discharge) (mom almost lost her eyes before birthing me, good thing I wasn't an accidental abortion)
How can you dx an EHV-1 infxn? What’s important to do?Will see intranuclear inclusion bodies! (Herpes). Virus isolation from nasal pharyngeal secretions or blood leukocytes, type-specific PCR, Immunofluorescence using type-specific monoclonal Abs, or paired serum samples (MUST BE TYPE SPECIFIC bc this is EHV-1 & there is also EHV-3, which is Equine Coital Exanthema)
Is there a vx?Yes

Equine Coital Exanthema

Question Answer
Etiological agent of ECE? DNA or RNA? Enveloped or naked?EHV-3! DNA, enveloped (3 has a lot of coitus, but he doesn’t cause abortion → nope, he does the opposite; cause you better believe his fertility is just fine)
Any microscopic giveaways for ECE?INTRANUCLEAR INCLUSION BODIES (Herpes)
How is EHV-3/ECE xmitted?Direct & sexual contact (coital) & FOMITES (horse dildos)
How would you describe Equine Coital Exanthema in common words?"Genital Herpes of horses" (EHV-3 causes an acute usually mild dz w/ pustules & ulcerations in the genital area)
What are the clinical signs of ECE?Pustules & ulcerations of the vagina, penis, prepuce & perineum. Lesions may also be seen on the lips (of nursing foals & teats from the mare) & the respiratory mucosa (usually subclinical in yearlings)
What places in the body does ECE effect?ONLY REPRO TRACT!!! ((maybe lips & resp mucosa of foals who are nursing...) but there are NO SYSTEMIC SIGNS & NO ABORTION
Are there systemic signs? Are there abortions?NO & NO ABORTIONS
How is fertility affected in ECE?There is NO EFFECT ON FERTILITY OF FEMALES OR MALES!!! There is just a ↓ in libido of the stallion (prolly bc his wang is sore)
Gross physical clue-in to if it's ECE?Carrier animals can sometimes be identified by spots of pigment loss on black skin in the genital region
How do you dx?PCR, Serology
What is the dz course like?LATENT FOR LIFE (Herpes)

Vesicular stomatitis

Question Answer
Etiological agent? DNA or RNA? Enveloped or naked?Rhabdoviridae, RNA, enveloped
What is super important to know about this dz?DDX w/ FMD (affects horses, cattle, sheep, goats, & pigs)
What animals does vesicular stomatitis affect?Horses, cattle, sheep, goats, & pigs (like FMD)
How does the virus enter the host?Through breaks in mucosa or skin
How can VS be xmitted?FOMITES, mechanically by arthropods (mouths are resistant to warnings, going to be sore soon) (kissed by an arthropod is going to make people rather want their lips to bubble off)
Clinical signs?Profuse salivation (similar to EHV-3 Rhinonuminitis), lameness, vesicles & ulcers on oral epithelium (lips, tongue) & coronary bands may appear
How widespread is the dz in the host?Only local vesiculation & interstitial edema. Healing is rapid & complete
How good are the Abs formed against VS?Reinfxns can occur
How do you dx?Serology carried out in authorized labs (sero, stoma)
How do you control vesicular stomatitis?Annual epidemics, endemic areas, seasonal suspect arthropod-borne (so not a whole lot can be done)

Equine Sarcoid

Etiological agent: Unknown for certain, Bovine papillomavirus suspected
Question Answer
What do sarcoids look like?Skin tumors that look like fibrosarcomas. They persist for life, are locally invasive & require treatment.
Are sarcoids metastatic?No
Is direct contact from horse to horse common?No, probably a bovine virus not usually spread horse to horse.
Treatment for equine sarcoidsSurgery, laser, radiation, topical drugs, all have Variable success. Immunotherapy is a new treatment.
What can cause regression of periocular sarcoids?Injection of BCG Mycobacteria
New way of treating equine sarcoid?Immunotherapy- stimulation of cell-mediated responses by injecting immunopotentiators
Different types of sarcoids (6)Occuate
Verrucous sarcoidsSlow growing sarcoids that appear on head, neck and groin.
NodularFirm nodules under skin that occur around eyes & groin.
FibroplasticOccur as ulcerative aggressive masses, often appearing at site of wounds or as a result of damage to a less aggressive form of sarcoid.
Mixed sarcoids. What's special?Combination of any sarcoid. Can be more aggressive as they change to fibroplastic type
MalevolentThese consist of multiple nodular or fibroblastic sarcoids which invade the lymphatic vesses. Rare & appear on face, inside thigh & at elbow

Equine Papillomatosis

Question Answer
Etiological agentPapova DNA naked
Clinical signs?Small, elevated keratinized papillomas around lips nose & sometimes lower limbs (look like warts)
How do you dx Equine Papillomatosis?See warts!!
How do you treat equine papillomatosis?They usually regress on their own in 1-9 months.
Where are the papillomas located on horse?Around the lips and nose, sometimes on the lower limbs


Question Answer
Xmission via horse fly & stable fly (& is its xmission mechanical or arbo)?Mechanical xmission-EIA (flying HIV would be horrible)
Virus persists in leukocytesEIA (HIV=WBCS) (EVA also infects macrophages)
Acute, subacute, recovered & chronic stagesEIA
Vasculitis & glomerulonephritis mediated by immune complexesEIA (anemia always affects the kidney, this is just...a little further. also remember that EIA=COGS=immune complexes)
Mild resp dz & abortionEVA (but Equine Influenza causes resp & the fever will cause abortion, also Equine Abortion causes resp signs & abortion)
BIRDS are the reservoir hostEquine Encephalitis, West Nile Encephalitis
Horses & humans are dead end hostsEquine Encephalitis, West Nile Encephalitis
If you see a horse pressing its head against the corner of the stall, what are you thinking?Eq Encephalitis primarily (or West Nile, or abortion...they all can cause Encephalitis)
If you see abnormal positioning, movement, & behavior can be...West Nile, Rabies, EHV-1 (abortion) & Equine Encephalitis
Large peplomers of 2 kinds: rod-shaped HA (hemagglutinin) & mushroom shape NA (neuroaminidase)Equine Influenza (Orthomyxoviridae)
Equine Herpesvirus 4 causes what?Equine Rhinopneumonitis
Paracrystaline arraysAdenovirus Pneumonia
Can lead to severe dz w/ cell destruction in the pancreas, salivary glands, renal, bladder & intestinal epithelium in SCID foals?Adenovirus Pneumonia
What is a SCID foal?Arabian foal w/ a 1° Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Dz (absence of B & T cells)
Nothing is done to try to control this infxnAdenovirus Pneumonia
Equine Herpes Virus 1 (EHV-1) is what dz?Equine Abortion
Abortion occurring in last 4mo of pregEquine Abortion (EHV-1)
Urinary incontinence due to virus myelopathyEquine Abortion (EHV-1)
Ab-Ag complexes causing vasculitisEHV-1 (Equine Abortion) & EIA
Possible ocular dzEHV-1 (Equine Abortion) (has AbAg & can damage retinal BVs?)(Herpes & eyes. think cats)
Repro tract dz w/ no abortions, no effect on fertilityEHV-3, aka Equine Coital Exanthema (3 looks like backwards E)
EHV-1 vs EHV-3?1= Equine Abortion (Abortion)
3= Equine Coital Exanthema (NO abortion)
How long does colostrum protect a foal? Explain the diff situations w/ SCIDsColostrum usually protects for 3-6 mo. If SCIDs foal drinks plenty of colostrum, won’t die of Adenovirus Pneumonia until AFTER 3-6 mo. If doesn’t drink ENOUGH, will have subclinical dz until 3-6 mo. If no colostrum, dies very soon after birth
ENCEPHALITISEquine Encephalitis, West Nile Encephalitis, Equine Abortion (EHV-1)
ABORTIONEVA, EHV-1 (Equine Abortion), Equine Influenza (fever) (NOTE: EHV-3 aka Equine Coital Exanthema does NOT CAUSE ABORTION!!!)
ZOONOTICEquine Encephalitis, West Nile Encephalitis
ARBOVIRUSESEquine Encephalitis, West Nile Encephalitis
INSECT VECTOR BUT NOT ARBOVIRUSEIA (horse & stable flies) & Vesicular Stomatitis (xmitted mechanically by arthropods)
DDx for West Nile virus?EEE, WEE, Rabies, & EHV-1 (abortion & CNS signs)
EEE & WEE xmitted by what?Mosquitos