What would be a more accurate name for Bovine Leukemia? Why?
Enzoonotic Bovine Leukocytosis, bc there is an ↑ in lymphocytes but THEY ARE NOT MALIGNANT
Etiologic agent of Bovine Leukemia is? DNA or RNA? Enveloped or naked?
Retroviridae, RNA, enveloped
Is Bovine Leukemia zoonotic?
What are the clinical signs of Bovine Leukemia? (What should you know? different types?)
Most infxns are asymptomatic & only recognized by serology! about 30% will develop persistent Lymphocytosis (lots of lymphocytes, but NOT MALIGNANT). A few develop lymphoid tumors (but these are SOLID tumors, NOT malignant blood cells) but no malignant cells are observed in the blood
What is super important to know about the cancers caused by Bovine Leukemia virus?
No malignant cells are observed in the blood!! (only Lymphocytosis & lymphoid tumors)
How do you diagnose Bovine Leukemia? Why do you want to diagnose?
Diagnose w/ Ab ELISA , bc want to know for test & removal programs.
How contagious is BL?
Not super contagious
How is BL transmitted?
Can be vertical (Less than 10% of calves are infected at birth to infected dams) or it can be horizontally transmitted, BUT this requires close & prolonged direct contact. As a vet, one must be careful bc iatrogenic xmission can happen (restrain devices, rectal examination gloves, vaccines & needles, rarely insects)
What kind of shedding is there for Malignant Catarrhal Fever?
Latent, recrudescent & intermittent or continuous shedding!!! HERPES!
what’s the prognosis like for Malignant Catarrhal Fever?
Almost invariably fatal generalized lymphoproliferative dz of cattle & some wild ruminants
MCF is a ___proliferative dz
Lymphoproliferative (leads to lymphadenopathy)
There are 3 epidemiological patterns of MCF. Name them. Which 1 do we care about, according to her notes
(1) In Africa & in zoos, cattle get infected from sub-clinical wildebeast (calving time) (2) Outside Africa, cattle in close contact w/ sheep (at lambing) (3) Feedlot cattle in North America w/ no contact w/ sheep
What are the clinical signs of MCF?
Leukopenia, profuse nasal & ocular discharge, bilateral opthalmia (usually leading to blindness), generalized lymphadenopathy, extensive mucosal erosions that cause diarrhea & central nervous system signs
Is there persistence of MCF, if the animal survives?
Of course, it's HERPES! (Note: if they survive, they also suffer permanent ocular dz)
How do you diagnose MCF? How can you histologically ID?
Use hx & clinical signs, Have to do virus isolation (in calf thyroid cells) & look for Cytopathic effects which include syncytia & intranuclear inclusion bodies
How do you control MCF?
Cattle are a dead-end host & transmission is generally ineffective, so on the bright side, there isn't much need to control this. No vx.
*Infectious Pustular Vulvovaginitis & Balanoposthitis (think: people Herpes for cows)
Which body system, or systemic?
BHV-1 → SAME AS IBR (DNA, enveloped)
What other bovine dz is related to Infectious Pustular Vulvovaginitis & Balanoposthitis?
IBR (also caused by BHV-1)
What should you know about the various presentations of dzs caused by BHV-1?
The variety clinical presentations rarely present in the same heard at the same time
Does Pustular Vulvovaginitis cause Abortion?
Yes! However, very rare, pustules in vagina, so prolly won’t go up & into the uterus
What are the clinical signs of Pustular Vulvovaginitis?
Unique way they stand w/ legs apart (due to pustules causing discomfort), frequent & painful micturition. Vulva is swollen, there is discharge, & there are many small (sometimes hard to spot) pustules
Clinical signs of Balanoposthitis?
(This is in the bull) the lesions & clinical course are very similar to the cow. They might not want to mate bc of painful sores, & semen from recovered bulls may contain virus as a consequence of periodic shedding (AI implications)
How is this form of BHV-1 transmitted?
Genital dz transmitted via coitus
What is important to know about the transmission of this dz, outside of coitus?
Semen collected from bulls (like for AI) may contain virus due to periodic shedding
It is an infectious, abnormally folded protein, NOT A VIRUS!!
What is PrP^c & PrP^sc?
C = cellular = regular cellular protein. SC = Scrapies, aka indicates the abnormally folded Prion
How can you tell a Prion from a regular protein, when they have the same amino acid?
There is a monoclonal antibody that can distinguish the 2 (conformational epitope)
Why doesnt the body just get rid of the Prions? When happens when they build up? Which leads to?
It is resistant to endogenous proteases, so the body CAN'T get rid of them. This is why they build up into aggregates called Scrapie associated fibrils (SAF) that form plaques which cause spongiform damage & neuronal dysfunction