Viro - Bovine 2

drraythe's version from 2015-08-30 22:30

RESPIRATORY- *Shipping Fever, *Parainfluenza 3 infxn, *Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Dz, *Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR)

Question Answer
What is Shipping Fever?Respiratory syndrome caused by a variety of agents acting in concert or in sequence. Usually a viral infxn precedes & in many cases, resolves w/o complication. However, in stressful situations both cattle & sheep may develop Shipping Fever; where other viruses may, but not necessarily, contribute to the dz (Parainfluenza 3, Adenovirus, IBR, Bov. Resp. Syncytial) predisposing to 2⁰ bacterial infxn (especially Pasteurella haemolytica) (SO, usually a consequence of transportation & other stressors such as poor hygiene, crowding, harsh climate, & has great economic importance.)
What are the 4 main predisposing viruses to Shipping Fever?Parainfluenza 3, Adenovirus, IBR, Bov. Resp. Syncytial
What are the clinical signs of Shipping Fever?Purulent nasal discharge, cough, rapid respiration, anorexia, fever & general malaise
Etiologic agent of Parainfluenza 3 infxn? DNA or RNA? Enveloped or Naked?Paramyxoviridae, RNA, enveloped.
What are some tell-tale microscopic lesions of PI3 infxn?Forms syncytiums & intracytoplasmic & intranuclear inclusion bodies
Does PI3 infxn predispose to Shipping Fever?Yes
What are the clinical signs of a PI3 infxn? Describe the prognosisFever, lacrimation, serous nasal discharge, depression, dyspnea & coughing. The course of the dz, if uncomplicated, is of 3-4 days w/ complete recovery. However it may be followed by more serious dz (Shipping Fever)
How can you differentiate a PI3 infxn & Shipping Fever?PI3 alone causes only mild fever & serous rhinitis (mild dz) Shipping dz is much more severe, & include interstitial pneumonia w/ inflammatory consolidation, purulent nasal discharge, cough, rapid respiration, anorexia, fever & general malaise
How is PI3 transmitted? How is PI3 controlled?Can be transmitted by aerosols & fomites contaminated w/ nasal discharges. There IS a vx!
Which 2 bovine resp. dzs are both caused by Paramyxoviridae?Parainfluenza 3, & Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Dz
Etiological agent of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Dz? DNA or RNA? Enveloped or naked?Paramyxoviridae, RNA, enveloped
What are some tell-tale microscopic lesions of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Dz?Forms LARGE syncytiums & intracytoplasmic & intranuclear inclusion bodies
Does a Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Dz predispose to Shipping Fever?Yes
Clinical signs of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Dz?Often inapparent infxn, but can be pneumonia, interstitial pulmonary edema & emphysema. Plays a role in initiating Shipping Fever.
Prognosis/mortality/morbidity of Bovine Resp. Syncytial Dz?Prognosis = good; high morbidity & low mortality
How can you microscopically tell the diff between Parainfluenza virus 3 & Bovine Resp. Syncytial Dz?The syncytial cells in the lungs are BIGGER in syncytial dz than they are in PI3 (both dzs have them, but syncytial dz's are bigger)
Which resp dz has common reinfxns?Bovine Resp. Syncytial Dz
Does Bovine Resp. Syncytial Dz have a vx?Yes (New vaccines that induce mucosal immunity are being developed)
Which of these is the most severe: Parainfluenza 3, Bovine Resp. Syncytial Dz, or Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis why?IBR (Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis). IBR is a HERPES!! Think about the fact its rhino-AND-Tracheitis, which means it's in the trachea so it's traveling further down than the others
Etiological agent of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR)? DNA or RNA? Enveloped or naked?Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) , Herpesviridae, DNA, enveloped
What are some tell-tale microscopic lesions of IBR?Intranuclear inclusion bodies ((also syncytiums, but NOT intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies)
What should you know about the clinical signs of Bovine Herpes virus 1? (& which resp dz does this cause?)(IBR is the resp dz caused by this) remember that this virus can cause MORE than just Rhinotracheitis! Pustular Vaginitis, Balanoposthitis, Conjunctivitis, Abortion, Enteritis, a generalized dz in newborn calves & possibly Encephalitis. However, these clinical presentations rarely present in the same heard at the same time
Does IBR predispose to Shipping Fever?Yes
What are the clinical signs of IBR?(Generally more severe than the other resp. dzs) profuse nasal discharge that goes from serous to mucopurulent. The nasal mucosa is hyperemic (can be aka "red nose"!). The mucosa can then form ULCERATIONS which can be covered in a fibrinous membrane. There will also be fetid breath, mouth breathing, & a DEEP BRONCHIAL cough (bc more severe & deeper dz than the others). Can also cause Abortion
Which dz in this group can cause Abortion?IBR, bc it's a Herpesvirus which can cause more than just a resp. dz (Aborted fetuses do not show gross lesions but microscopic necrotic foci are present in many tissues w/ the liver being the most consistently affected organ)
Explain shedding/triggers for IBR?Lifelong latent infxn & periodic virus shedding occur (BHV-1 (Herpes!) is forever <3). The injxn of corticosteroids results in reactivation
Which resp dz do you want to seek a diagnosis for? (The others we don't care, we usually treat). What diagnostic techniques?IBR!! EM, IF of vesicular fluid of tissue smears & PCR are rapid & diagnostic, Viral isolation in bovine cell cultures, or Ab ELISA
Are there vx for IBR? Note about this?YES! There are vaccines now that allow differentiation between vaccinated & infected therefore integrated programs are better

GI dzs - *Rotavirus

Question Answer
Etiological agent of Rotavirus? DNA or RNA? Enveloped or Naked? NOTES?Reoviridae, RNA, segmented into 11 segments!!, & naked.
Special stuff to know about genome of Rotavirus?SEGMENTED into 11 segments, so there is Genetic reassortment between viruses w/in genus or serogroup (milk-Scours is the worst diarrhea, 11 times worse than any other)
What does Rotavirus cause, in who? What is it aka?Rotavirus causes diarrhea in calves & it is usually referred to as “white Scours” or “Milk Scours”
Which virus causes "white/Milk Scours" in calves?Rotavirus
What is transmission route of Rotavirus?Fecal-oral
When in a cattle's life is it affected by Rotavirus?As a calf, in the first couple of weeks post birth
What are the clinical signs of Rotavirus? (How does animal act, what are feces like)Affected animals are only moderately depressed & continue to eat. Feces are voluminous, soft to liquid & often contain large amounts of mucus
What is the prognosis of Rotavirus/Milk Scours?Young animals may die as a result of dehydration but most recover after 3-4 days
What other factor worsens the diarrhea seen in Rotavirus/Milk Scours?Happens in calves that are still drinking mom's milk. Villi epithelium are ruined by virus, & then Undigested lactose in milk cause bacterial overgrowth & has osmotic effect both contributing to further diarrhea
What do you need to know about diagnosis of Rotavirus/Milk Scours?Dont usually dx, Presumptive diagnosis is based on clinical presentation. However, if you need to dx, a definite diagnosis can be reached by EM, ELISA, RT-PCR, isolation (Milk Scours, EM)
If you wanted to do viral isolation of Rotavirus, what must you do?If virus isolation is needed, trypsin must be added to the media to cleave the outer capsid protein VP4 & facilitate entry & uncoating (if you're seeing the world Rotate you're probably trippin)
How is Rotavirus excreted/how resistant is it in the enviro?Rotavirus excreted in feces at very high numbers & survives in the environment for months (is naked)
Which immunity is more important for fighting against Rotavirus?Local immunity in the small intestine is more important that systemic immunity in providing resistance to infxn (think local mucosal immunity since it is a dz that affects the intestines) Vax the dam!
Is there a vx for Rotavirus? How does it work?Vaccination of the cow (mom) w/ inactivated virus vaccine promotes higher levels of maternal antibodies in colostrum & milk & ↓ the incidence of dz in neonates
Which bovine diarrhea-causing virus affects only very young cattle, & which affects old & young?Rota = only young (Milk Scours in those who drink milk- babies) Corona = old & young (winter happens to everyone)

GI dzs -*Bovine Coronavirus Diarrhea

Question Answer
Bovine Coronavirus Diarrhea etiological agent? DNA or RNA? Enveloped or naked?Coronaviridae, ssRNA +, enveloped w/ large club-shaped peplomeres
What is the dz Bovine Coronavirus Diarrhea causes in ADULTS?“Winter Dysentery” in adult cattle. (Sporadic acute dz in adult cattle (explosive sometimes bloody diarrhea, ↓ milk production, depression & anorexia))
Which dz causes Winter Dysentery?Bovine Coronavirus Diarrhea (the queen of winter wears a crown)
What is the #1 cause of diarrhea in calves? #2?1) Rotavirus
2) Coronavirus
Which Bovine Diarrhea Virus can cause diarrhea in humans (zoonotic!)?The CORONA VIRUS causes DIARRHEA IN HUMANS! Even tho the Rotavirus belongs to the same group as the human Rotaviruses, it doesnt cause diarrhea in ppl (humans wear crowns too)
When/how does Bovine Coronavirus Diarrhea affect calves?Happens in calves at about 1 week of age when maternal antibody begins to wane & exposure is maximum
Is there a vx for Bovine Coronavirus Diarrhea?Vaccines for calves are not effective (not antigenic enough & cannot provide protection soon enough) Vaccinate the dam to provide high levels of maternal antibodies in colostrum
What is true about both Bovine Coronavirus & Bovine Rotavirus?These viruses cannot be differentiated clinically when they cause diarrhea in neonate calves.