Vaccines for Bacteria & Viruses

darodri6's version from 2016-03-07 04:49


Medium-to-High Yield VaccineVaccine Type
AdenovirusLIVE vaccine delivered by enteric-coated capsules. Military recruits receive one capsul for Ad4, Ad7 and Ad21 (most common causes of ARD)
Hepatitis A virus2 vaccines available: Havrix & Vaqta
Both are KILLED (inativated) vaccines and are recommended for military, travelers to endemic regions & other high risk groups (i.e. immunocompromised).
Vaccine adminstered in two doses, one month apart. Protective for 20 years.
Hepatitis B virus2 Types: Recombinant & Plasma-derived
Plasma derived: Older version where HBsAG comes from plasma of chronic carriers. Treated with Formalin to inactivate HBV. NOT RECOMMENDED
Recombinant: not of serum origin. More immunogenic. Purified HBsAg taken from yeast. Given in three doses in early childhood (first dose before leaving hospital)
Human Papilloma virusGardasil: Recombinant Anti-HPV vaccine. Quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine. Composed of L1 structural proteins. HPV types 16, 18, 6 and 11. HPV-virus like particles which stimulate an immune response. Grown in yeast. Empty capsids (i.e. no nucleic acid genome, NON-INFECTIOUS) Given as three IM injections over a 6-month period, preferably before start of sexual activity.
Influenza virus2 different vaccines: TIV (Trivalent Influenza Vaccine; inactivated/KILLED virus) and LAIV (LIVE, attenuated Influenza Vaccine)
TIV: contains a circulating type from each of the most prevalent Type A viruses for the upcoming year (H3N2 and H1N1) and one type B strain. IM injection for those > 6 months and < 65 years
LAIV: contains same virus antigenc type as TIV. Reassorted with "cold-adapted" strain of the flu. Gives beteer mucosal activity to URT. Intranasal spray for thos > 2 years and <49 years. Not to be used for the weak or pregnant.
Measles virusMMR(V) vaccine given to all children between 12 and 15 months of age. Boosters given at entrance to school and college.
Mumps virusMMR(V) vaccine given to all children between 12 and 15 months of age. Boosters given at entrance to school and college.
Poliovirus2 vaccines (OPV=oral, IPV=injection). Given at 2 months, and a total of 3x @ every 4 weeks therafter.
1. Sabin (OPV) – LIVE attenuated vaccine. Put on sugar cubes and ingested. Poops out vaccine, helping others by bystander effect. In rare occasions, it would cause polio.
2. Salk (IPV) – INACTIVATED (killed) vaccine, given as injection. Only gives systemic immunity because it’s in blood, so you can still get wild-type intestinal infection (infects gut), but it won’t go into blood (wont get systemic paralysis). Now the recommended type!
Rabies virus2 vaccines: one passive and one active
Passive: given post-exposure only. HRIG (human rabies immune globulin) placed at site of wound and the rest via gluteal injection
Active: given both as pre-exposure prophylaxis (three 1 mL deltoid muscle injections on days 0, 7 and 21) or part of post-exposure treatment (if not previously immunized: five 1 mL deltoid injections at days 0, 3, 7, 14 and 28 OR if previously vaccinated: two 1 mL deltoid injections at days 0 and 3). INACTIVATED (killed) VIRUS (HDVD or PCECV)
Rotavirus2 different vaccines available: both are oral and LIVE, attenuated vaccines. Either should be given at 2, 4 and 6 months of age (3 oral doses)
1. RotaTeq
2. Rotarix
Rubella virusMMR(V): LIVE, attenuated vaccine (strain RA 27/3) (dont give to immunocompromised or pregnant women). Given at 15 months with booster. Very effective.
SmallpoxLIVE, Vaccinia virus used for vaccine. Injected with bifurcated needle. Causes 1 pustule, scab, then falls off.
Varicella Zoster virusLIVE, attenuated vaccine (Oka/Merck strain). Recommended for children (1st dose @ 12-15 months and 2nd dose @ 4-6 years). Also recommended for anyone above 13 years (2 doses, 28 days apart). Combination vaccine, MMRV, available for those above 12 years.
Alternative version (passive immunity) given to immunocompromised: VZIG (Varicella-Zoster immune globin)
Yellow fever virusLIVE, attenuated vaccine. NOT for pregnant or children < 6 months.

Bacterial Vaccines

Medium-to-High Yield VaccineVaccine Type
Bacillus anthracisOnly adminsters to special groups (i.e. military,doctors in big cities, etc...)
Inactivated vaccine expressing high levels of protective antigen. Contains filtrates of bacteria only, NOT a whole cell vaccine. No EF or LF in vaccine.
Vaccine consists of 6 subcutaneous inoculations over 18 months w/yearly boosters.
Bordetella pertussisPREVIOUSLY: DTP (original, before DTaP) that killed organisms during the Catarrhal stage). People ended up avoiding it b/c it caused brain damage in rare cases....No longer available!
CURRENTLY: we use Acellular vaccine (DTaP) with purified toxoid (inactivated) form of B. pertussis (preferably bettween 6 weeks to 7 years of age) + TDaP booster every 10 years. Vaccine contains three antigens (instead of whole cell)
Clostridium tetaniDTaP vaccination series shortly after birth (preferably at 2, 4 and 6 months). Contains Tetanus toxoid.
+ tetanus toxoid booster (Td) every 10 years
Corynebacterium diphtheriaediptheria toxoid (inactivated) as part of the DTaP, Td and Tdap vaccines
+ booster every 10 years
Haemophilus influenzaePolysaccharide-protein conjugated vaccine.
Children under 2 years: receive type b polyribitol capsule (preferably at 2, 4 and 6 months of age) to mainly prevent meningitis
Mycobacterium tuberculosisBCG vaccine (attenuated(weakened) strain). Not used in the USA!
Neisseria meningitidis2 types: Both are Quadrivalent polysaccharide vaccines against capsular antigens (A, C, Y, W-135) . Also highly recommended for those with complement (MAC) deficiencies or those who are/at risk-of becoming asplenic.
Type I: Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV4): Adminstered subcutaneously. Recommended for children 2 years or older or those >65 y/o
Type II: Meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4): 4 aforementioned capsular antigens conjugated to diptheria toxoid. Adminstered via IM injection. Recommended for those between 2 and 55 y/o w/intermittent boosters. All 11-12 y/o and incoming college freshman should be vaccinated
Streptococcus pneumoniaeAdults = 23-valent polysaccharide (T-cell indp = IgM formation)
Infants = 7-valent polysaccharide-protein conjugate (T-cell dep = IgG formation)


Low Yield VaccineVaccine Type
Japanese encephalitis virus:
Rickettsia prowazekii:
Salmonella typhi2 types: Oral or Injectable
Oral: Viotif (Ty21a) = a LIVE, attenuated strain of S. typhi. Administered via 5 capsules every other day for 1 week. Last for 5 years.
Injectable: Typhim Vi = contains polysaccharide antigen and given as a single injection. Last for 2 years.
Tick-borne encephalitis virus:
Vibrio choleraVaccines only provide protection for 3-9 months.
Cholera toxoid administered via injection form (parenterally) OR LIVE, attenuated (weakened) oral vaccine
Current vaccines provide little-to-no protection against O139 strains or any non-O1 strains
Yersinia pestisInactivated vaccine NO longer available in the USA