Vaccines for Bacteria & Virusesrename
darodri6's version from 2016-03-07 04:49
|Medium-to-High Yield Vaccine||Vaccine Type|
|Adenovirus||LIVE vaccine delivered by enteric-coated capsules. Military recruits receive one capsul for Ad4, Ad7 and Ad21 (most common causes of ARD)|
|Hepatitis A virus||2 vaccines available: Havrix & Vaqta|
Both are KILLED (inativated) vaccines and are recommended for military, travelers to endemic regions & other high risk groups (i.e. immunocompromised).
Vaccine adminstered in two doses, one month apart. Protective for 20 years.
|Hepatitis B virus||2 Types: Recombinant & Plasma-derived|
Plasma derived: Older version where HBsAG comes from plasma of chronic carriers. Treated with Formalin to inactivate HBV. NOT RECOMMENDED
Recombinant: not of serum origin. More immunogenic. Purified HBsAg taken from yeast. Given in three doses in early childhood (first dose before leaving hospital)
|Human Papilloma virus||Gardasil: Recombinant Anti-HPV vaccine. Quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine. Composed of L1 structural proteins. HPV types 16, 18, 6 and 11. HPV-virus like particles which stimulate an immune response. Grown in yeast. Empty capsids (i.e. no nucleic acid genome, NON-INFECTIOUS) Given as three IM injections over a 6-month period, preferably before start of sexual activity.|
|Influenza virus||2 different vaccines: TIV (Trivalent Influenza Vaccine; inactivated/KILLED virus) and LAIV (LIVE, attenuated Influenza Vaccine)|
TIV: contains a circulating type from each of the most prevalent Type A viruses for the upcoming year (H3N2 and H1N1) and one type B strain. IM injection for those > 6 months and < 65 years
LAIV: contains same virus antigenc type as TIV. Reassorted with "cold-adapted" strain of the flu. Gives beteer mucosal activity to URT. Intranasal spray for thos > 2 years and <49 years. Not to be used for the weak or pregnant.
|Measles virus||MMR(V) vaccine given to all children between 12 and 15 months of age. Boosters given at entrance to school and college.|
LIVE, ATTENUATED VIRUS
|Mumps virus||MMR(V) vaccine given to all children between 12 and 15 months of age. Boosters given at entrance to school and college.|
LIVE, ATTENUATED VIRUS
|Poliovirus||2 vaccines (OPV=oral, IPV=injection). Given at 2 months, and a total of 3x @ every 4 weeks therafter.|
1. Sabin (OPV) – LIVE attenuated vaccine. Put on sugar cubes and ingested. Poops out vaccine, helping others by bystander effect. In rare occasions, it would cause polio.
2. Salk (IPV) – INACTIVATED (killed) vaccine, given as injection. Only gives systemic immunity because it’s in blood, so you can still get wild-type intestinal infection (infects gut), but it won’t go into blood (wont get systemic paralysis). Now the recommended type!
|Rabies virus||2 vaccines: one passive and one active|
Passive: given post-exposure only. HRIG (human rabies immune globulin) placed at site of wound and the rest via gluteal injection
Active: given both as pre-exposure prophylaxis (three 1 mL deltoid muscle injections on days 0, 7 and 21) or part of post-exposure treatment (if not previously immunized: five 1 mL deltoid injections at days 0, 3, 7, 14 and 28 OR if previously vaccinated: two 1 mL deltoid injections at days 0 and 3). INACTIVATED (killed) VIRUS (HDVD or PCECV)
|Rotavirus||2 different vaccines available: both are oral and LIVE, attenuated vaccines. Either should be given at 2, 4 and 6 months of age (3 oral doses)|
|Rubella virus||MMR(V): LIVE, attenuated vaccine (strain RA 27/3) (dont give to immunocompromised or pregnant women). Given at 15 months with booster. Very effective.|
|Smallpox||LIVE, Vaccinia virus used for vaccine. Injected with bifurcated needle. Causes 1 pustule, scab, then falls off.|
|Varicella Zoster virus||LIVE, attenuated vaccine (Oka/Merck strain). Recommended for children (1st dose @ 12-15 months and 2nd dose @ 4-6 years). Also recommended for anyone above 13 years (2 doses, 28 days apart). Combination vaccine, MMRV, available for those above 12 years.|
Alternative version (passive immunity) given to immunocompromised: VZIG (Varicella-Zoster immune globin)
|Yellow fever virus||LIVE, attenuated vaccine. NOT for pregnant or children < 6 months.|
|Medium-to-High Yield Vaccine||Vaccine Type|
|Bacillus anthracis||Only adminsters to special groups (i.e. military,doctors in big cities, etc...)|
Inactivated vaccine expressing high levels of protective antigen. Contains filtrates of bacteria only, NOT a whole cell vaccine. No EF or LF in vaccine.
Vaccine consists of 6 subcutaneous inoculations over 18 months w/yearly boosters.
|Bordetella pertussis||PREVIOUSLY: DTP (original, before DTaP) that killed organisms during the Catarrhal stage). People ended up avoiding it b/c it caused brain damage in rare cases....No longer available!|
CURRENTLY: we use Acellular vaccine (DTaP) with purified toxoid (inactivated) form of B. pertussis (preferably bettween 6 weeks to 7 years of age) + TDaP booster every 10 years. Vaccine contains three antigens (instead of whole cell)
|Clostridium tetani||DTaP vaccination series shortly after birth (preferably at 2, 4 and 6 months). Contains Tetanus toxoid.|
+ tetanus toxoid booster (Td) every 10 years
|Corynebacterium diphtheriae||diptheria toxoid (inactivated) as part of the DTaP, Td and Tdap vaccines|
+ booster every 10 years
|Haemophilus influenzae||Polysaccharide-protein conjugated vaccine.|
Children under 2 years: receive type b polyribitol capsule (preferably at 2, 4 and 6 months of age) to mainly prevent meningitis
|Mycobacterium tuberculosis||BCG vaccine (attenuated(weakened) strain). Not used in the USA!|
|Neisseria meningitidis||2 types: Both are Quadrivalent polysaccharide vaccines against capsular antigens (A, C, Y, W-135) . Also highly recommended for those with complement (MAC) deficiencies or those who are/at risk-of becoming asplenic.|
Type I: Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV4): Adminstered subcutaneously. Recommended for children 2 years or older or those >65 y/o
Type II: Meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4): 4 aforementioned capsular antigens conjugated to diptheria toxoid. Adminstered via IM injection. Recommended for those between 2 and 55 y/o w/intermittent boosters. All 11-12 y/o and incoming college freshman should be vaccinated
|Streptococcus pneumoniae||Adults = 23-valent polysaccharide (T-cell indp = IgM formation)|
Infants = 7-valent polysaccharide-protein conjugate (T-cell dep = IgG formation)
|Low Yield Vaccine||Vaccine Type|
|Japanese encephalitis virus||:|
|Salmonella typhi||2 types: Oral or Injectable|
Oral: Viotif (Ty21a) = a LIVE, attenuated strain of S. typhi. Administered via 5 capsules every other day for 1 week. Last for 5 years.
Injectable: Typhim Vi = contains polysaccharide antigen and given as a single injection. Last for 2 years.
|Tick-borne encephalitis virus||:|
|Vibrio cholera||Vaccines only provide protection for 3-9 months.|
Cholera toxoid administered via injection form (parenterally) OR LIVE, attenuated (weakened) oral vaccine
Current vaccines provide little-to-no protection against O139 strains or any non-O1 strains
|Yersinia pestis||Inactivated vaccine NO longer available in the USA|