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wewovino's version from 2017-02-21 21:43

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Question Answer
Role of IκB in the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signal transduction pathway from IL-1 binding to IL-6Releases NF-kB after undergoing phosphorylation
Following intravenous fluids and insulin, there is marked improvement. Activity of which enzymes has most likely increased in this patient's hepatocytes?Glucokinase
A 4-day-old male newborn ~ears have periauricular skin tags, micrognathia, glossoptosis, amandibular cleft, and a short palate. Defect of which of the following pharyngeal arches?First - Maxillary
54 M for the past 2 months and a 9-kg weight loss over the past 3 months. He is jaundiced. CT scan of abdomen shows a mass in the head of the pancreas. Greatest risk for developing which?Pancreatic cancer is related to -> Major depressive disorder
23-year-old man hasmildly depressed mood, decreased energy, and dry skin. Thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations are decreased dx?Secondary hypothyroidism
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TCA toxicity

Question Answer
Central & peripheral muscarnic aceytlcholine receptorsTachycardia, delirium, dilated pupils, flushing, urinary retention, decreased sweating
b-thallsemai defect initiallymRNA formation
Peripheral alpha 1 adrenergic receptorsVasodilation(orthostatic hypotension)
Cardiac fast sodium channelsConduction defects, ventricular arrythemias
Biotin( raw eggs) is used inPyruvate to Oxaloacetate
B-petrussi coughing with emesisG- Coccobaccili
Timolol work onCiliary epithelium
Aspiration pneumonia txClindamycin
Which amino acid causes dilationArginine -> Nitric oxide
Triptans needs to be used immediately during an attackPost synaptic serotonin receptor stimulation
Presynaptic neurotransmiter reuptake(NE &5-HT)Anti-depressant & anxiolytic effects, seizures, tremors
Multiple MyelomaDECREASED PTH, INCREASED urinary calcium
Airfluid level in the right lower lobe of lung, those lesions contributes toLysosomal contents released by macrophages -> Pulmonary abcess
Histamine H1 receptorsSedation, increased appetite
Trisomy 13/18/21, Turner Syndrome, KlinefelterMeiotic Non-Disjunction
Paroxymal Supraventricular Tachy cardiaAdenosine -> sx are flushing, chest burning, high grade block
Examples of DNA binding proteinsmyc(transcription factors), steroids, transcription factors, thyroid proteins, vitamin d receptors, retinioc receptros
Pure hemi-sensory loss(pain,touch,vibration,gait instability)Stroke of ventral posterior thalamus -> receives input from dorsal columns and spinothalamic nucleus
Lacunar infarctLipohyalonosis for small vessels 5-6mm cavities in deep brain filled with clear fluid
ANP & BNP effect on kidneyVaso dilate afferent & Vasoconstrict efferent -> Increase in GFR
Thyroid peroxidase enzyme functionThyroglobulin iodination
S.epidermisSynthesis of extracellular polysaccharide capsule
Egg stage Born to pubertyProphase Meiosis I
Egg staGe Puberty to OvulationArrested in Metaphase Meiosis II
Egg stage after ovulationCompleted Metaphase Meiosis II
Polymyositis antibodies areHistidyl-tRNA synthetase
Alternate drug for aspirin allergyClopidogrel -> blocks P2Y component of ADP Receptors on platelet surface
Hydrophilic drugs3-5L body distribution, high plasma protein binding/charge/molecular weight
Chronic kidney rejection(4yrs later after kidney transplantation, worsening hypertension, rise in creatinine) histologyObliterative vascular fibrosis
Tryptophan in diet can also provide what vitamin?Niacin
Relative risk vs Odss rationRelative risk is easier because it is simple and is only divison
What step of processing and handling or mRNA occur ONLY within cytoplasmInteraction with P bodies(P bodies play an important role in mRNA translation & regulation & degradation)
Normal Leydig and Abnormal Sertoli cellsMale and Female Internal organs, Male External organs
What helps get rid of acid in the urineGlutamine
High grade fever & recent iv drug abuse, with wedge shaped lungEmoblism -> Tricuspid endocarditis NOT Venous thromboembolism
New onset left sided flank pain, hematuria, left side variocele, think of thrombosis in a pt with nephrotic kidney diseaseLoss of Anti-thrombin III in urine
HbS is worse than HbC becauseHbS allows hydrophobic interaction among hemoglobin molecules
Xeroderma pigmentosum defective enzymeEndonuclease
DuodenumBulb, Descending, Transverse(SMAS), ascending
Sulfonurea(Glyburide) & Megalintides increaseInsulin & C-peptide from pancreas
When both parents are carrier / mother(1/50) & dad (1/100). What are the sons chances?30x100 -> 3000X4 -> 12000 -> 1/12000
Thmic shadowSCIDSever bacterial & viral infections/ Chronic diarrhea, Mucocutaneous candidiasis, DigeorgeCongential heart disease,dysmorphic face, hypocalcemia
Nitrite poisoning causes methhemoglobinemia & oxygen supplementation does not work. What is normal or unchanged?Partial pressure of oxygen
VSD MurmurHolosystolic murmur over the left sternal border
Specific key for Herediatry spherocytosisIncreased mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrationMCHC
Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer defective enzyme3-5 exonuclease
Why do pts have high glucose in low insulin state is due toGlycerol made from breakdown of triglycerides and used by -> Glycerol Kinase used for gluconeogenesis
Enterpeptidase activates trypsin and deficiency of it causesMalabsorption of protein and fats leading to diarrhea
EHECInhibits inactivates ribosomal subunit
Morbidity and mortality of pt with N.MeningitidisOuter membrane Lipooligosacharide -> O antigen
Capsular polysacharide of N.MeningitidisVirulence and prevents phagocytosis by body -> aka found in the vaccine
Zinc fingerSteroids,thyroid, fat soluble vitamins
Dobutamine MOAb-Agoinist -> Positive ionotropy, Increase HR, Contractility & Increased mycardial consumption
Fixed and dilated pupils after 10 minutes of no heart function. damage toMidbrain due to CN III dysfunction
Pt with sickle cell trait has a flank pain, hematuria, passage of small blood clot dx?Renal Papillary necrosis -> Also in analgesic use
Insulin activatesProtein Phosphatase via tyrosine kinase-> Increases synthesis of glycogen
Generalized anxiety disorderTX SSRI but give short or intermediate benzodiazepams
Short diazapamsTria,oxazepam, midaazolam, Alprozalam
IntermediateAlprazolam, lorazapam, temazepam
Yellow greenish frothy vaginal discharge with burningTrichmonas vaginitis -> Diagnose with Wet saline microscopy
Test shows 3 times 200 measurement but the gold standard is 260Reliable but NOT accurate
Left shoulder droop, weakness in arm abduction, hx of surgery in posterior triangle of the neckSpinal accessory nerve damage -> Trapezius
Boy presenting with no lactate and muscle weakness with absent lactate dehydrogenase leads to inhibiton of glycolysis due toDepletion of NAD+
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency leads to increased lactic levels(cramping muscle, failure to thrive, opthalmoplegia,seizures) What substance in this pt diet?Ketogenic diet -> Lysine & Leucine
Aspirin toxicity less than 12 hrsRespiratiory alkalosis
Aspirin toxicity more than 12 hrsMetabolic Acidosis -> NORMAL pH, LOW PaCO2 & Bicarbonate
Peripheral chemoreceptors are stimulated byOxygen(unhealthy pts) -> Carotid & Aortic bodies
Hemophilia(X-linked recessive) carrier pt wants to know the probability of having a child with disease1/8
COPD pt given oxygen leads toDecreased respiratory drive -> Peripheral chemoreceptors(Carotid & aortic bodies)
Central chemoreceptors are stimulated by CO2(normal people)Central chemoreceptors
Mital regurgitationAfterload decrease, Preload increase, Left ventricular ejection fraction increase
Myasthenia Gravis is what type of sensitivity?Type II like Goodpasture syndrome
Pt on glucocorticosteroids for asthma has infiltrates,proximal bronchiectasis, eosinophiliaAspergillus Fumigatus
Estrogen increasesTotal T4 & T3
C3 & IgGGoodpasture rpgn
RAS protein activated only when bound toGTP
DobutamineBagonist cAMP
Ehlers DhanosLysl Oxidase enzyme deficiency in collagen synthesis
Glycosylation defectOsteogenesis imperfecta
Turner syndrome/Down syndrome or even klinefelterSomatic mosacism
To achieve 2sd(95%) concentration eliminated by first order kinetics is4-5Half hrs
Reactive arthritis associated withHLA B27 after diarrheal infections -> Chlamydia, camplobacter,yersenia
Pt presenting with impetigo has g+ cocci in chains COMPLICATION?S.pyogenes facial puffiness & dark urine
Pt presenting with ARF has g+ cocci in chains COMPLICATION?S.pyogenes fatigue & heart murmurs
Presystolic sound that is right after S1 is best heard during expiration while lying on the left sideS4 Hypertrophic cardiac ventricle -> Increased stiffness of the left ventricular wall
Calculate 30% protein in a 3000 calorie diet30/100 -> 0.3 x 3000 -> 900CALORIES -> 900calories/4calories of 1g protein
Extension comatoseBelow red nucleus -> Decerebrate Midbrain tegmentum & Pons
Flexion comatoseAbove red nucleus -> Decorticate Cereberal hemispheres & Internal capsule
Pt presenting with recurrent blistering on his hands dx Porphyeria cutane atardaUroporphyringen decarboxylase
Antbbodies disrupt the binding of acting to structural support elementsZ Line
Antibodies disrupt the binding of myosin to structural support elementsM line
Immunocompromised Pt with mass in the intestine uniform, round, medium sized tumor cells with basophilic cytoplasm WITH ki-67proliferationEBV
Clasp knife rigidityNOT Huntington -> Upper motor neuron deficit - Internal capsule
NSADS & Furosemide should never be given togetherFurosemide increase prostaglandins but ibuprofen & NSAIDS inhibit prostaglandins
DKA LABS KIntracellular Low, Extracellular High
Rectosigmoid lymph nodes are calledPararectal -> Drains to internal iliac nodes
Direct herniatransversalis fascia breakdown
IgA & C3 deposition inchild skin biopsy is significant for Henoch scholen purpuraSkin rash & abdominal pain
High oxygen affinity hemoglobin have reduced ability to release oxygen leading toHypoxia -> Erythrocytosis
Impaired neuromuscular transmissionMysthania gravis
Reduced saltatory conductionMultiple Sclerosis
Which best explains why deoxygenated blood can carry more carbon dioxide for a given Pco2 than oxygenated blood?Deoxyhemoglobin is a better buffer of hydrogen ions than oxyhemoglobin
SalmonellaAntibiotics prolong sympotoms DO NOT give
Salmonella typhiPotential to remain in gall bladder as a carreir state
Conns syndrome LABSNormal Sodium, Low Potassium, High Bicarbonate
Surgery in the posterior triangle of the neck damages(Abduction of arm over the head and combing issues with no sensory deficts)Spinal accessory nerve Trapezius
Most common aseptic meningitis(viral)Enterovirus
Clenched hands with overlapping fingerEdwards Syndrome
Platelet surface glycoprotein receptor that normally binds fibrinogen to support platelet aggregrationAbciximab -> GpIIbIIIa
Tortuous veins in the gastric fundus ONLYSplenic vein thrombosis
Shingles on the chest of an elderly ptReactivation of vericella zoster virus -> Varicella IgG ANTIBODIES usually has immunity for chickenpox NOT VZV
Cornybacterium DiptheriaeIntracellular phosphate granules
Local injection of toxin into muscle treats focal dystonias, achlasia & spasmsClostrrdia botulinm -> Subterminal spore formation
X-linked recessiveHemophilia B
Classic galactosemiaAutosomal recessive Common & Worst one
Decreased Uterine Contractions & MydrasisDog chasing sympathetic Alpha & Beta Agonist
Celiac Disease duodenum biopsy
Non fusion of uretheral foldsHypospadias -> Vagina in female
Increase left ventricular volumeIncrease ANP -> Increase GFR, Decrease renin secretion & Sodium absorption -> Urination
C.Diptheriae And PseudomonasProtein ribosylation
PrimaquineP.vivx or ovale
Sorbitol converts to what in healthy individual eyesFructose
HSV virus anterograde reactivationKinesin
Sperm retrogradeDynein
VwfPTT only abnormal
TTP-HUS, ITPLow platelet
Pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme is inhibited in hypoxic(anaerobic) conditions causing pyruvate toLactate
Neuronal resting membranePotassium,
Neuronal ligand gated ionSodium
Neuronal voltage gated ionChloride
Fever & sore throat in a pt being treated with anti-thyroid medicationsThionamide induced agranulocytosis ->Discontinue drug,white blood cell count differential
Lymph nodegerminal centers significanceIsotype switching
Fusion gene between EML4 & ALK, Non small cell lung cancer similar physiology toCML
Giant cell arteritis important mediator for disease severityIL-6
Aldrenoate structurally similar toPyrophosphate
Chancroid same asH.Ducreyi
Granuloma inguinale do no haveLymphadenopathy
Severe skin & subcutaneous fat necrosis 2 days after warfarin initiationProtein C deficiency
Low levels of all immunoglobulinsX-linked agamaglobulinemia -> CD19 defective
Intrinsic or fine motor movement of hands innervated byMedian & Ulnar Lower trunk of the brachial plexus
HER2 SignificanceAre most likely more aggresive and CANT be treated with tamoxifien or armoatase inhibitor -> Instead with Trustuzumab
Collagen defect in extracellular processing of collagen synthesisN-terminal propeptide removal OR Cross linking formed by lysyl oxidase
Phentolamine is used in treatmentOverdose of Norepinephrine
Aldose reductase VS Aldose BEye galactitol accumulation VS Herediatry fructose intolerance
Galactokinase deficiencyEye cataracts
Anaerobic gram-variable rodBacterial vaginosis
Find RBF, Hematocrit - 50%, PAH- 100 URINE/0.2 SERUM, urine flow - 1[ (100/0.2) / (1-0.5) ]-> 1000
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CSF

Question Answer
Dilated lateral and third ventricle with a normal sized fourth Obstruction of cerebral aquaduct
Enlargement of only lateral ventricleObstruction at Foramen monro
Enlargement of all 4 ventriclesObstruction of foramen Magendie & Luschka
Communicating HydrocephalusLack of CSF absorption at the arachnoid villi -> Infants
Non-Communicating HydrocephalusWhen one or two ventricles are dilated and not all ventricles are dilated due to obstruction
Normal pressure hydrocephalusDecreased CSF formation & impaired absorption -> ADULTS
Pseudotumor cerebriOverweight young women-> cerebral venous flow abnormalities
Hydrocephalus ex vacuoNormal ICP & Increased dilation of ventricles due to cortical atrophy
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