UWorld Int Med. 6-23-2015

wumimimu's version from 2015-06-25 02:30


Question Answer
What are the auscultation findings in mitral stenosis?A loud s1 and apical diastolic rumbling murmur
What is the classic skin lesion in sarcoidosisErythema nodosum
What differentiates blastomycosis from histoplasmosis?Ulcerated skin lesions and lytic bone lesions
What are human and dog bite infections treated with?Amoxicillin-clavulanate (augmentin)gram +/- and anaerobe coverage
What does clindamycin cover and treat?Gram +, anaerobes, and usually used to treat lung abscesses and female genital tract infections
What electrolyte findings consistent with ATN?BUN/Cr ratio <20:1, urine osm btwn 300-350, FeNa >2%, and urine Na>20
Describe the different type of casts in urine and what they indicate?RBC casts: Glomerulonephritis; WbC casts: int. nephritis or pyelo; Fatty casts:nephrotic syndrome; waxy broad casts: CKD,
How is confounding avoided?Matching between cases and controls: selection of matching variables
What are the three steps in managing hyperkalemia?Membrane stabilization, moving K intracellularly, and removing K from the body
What kind of visual loss occurs from macular degeneration and what is seen on fundoscopic exam?Fine acuity vision is the first to go, and straight lines usually look wavy; see drusen deposits in the macula
What are the influenza drugs?Oseltamivir, zanamivir, amantadine, rimantidine (last two-influenza type A)
Wht are the centor criteria?Strep pharyngitis: tonsillar exudates, tender anterior cervical lymphadenopathy, fever, and the absence of cough
What imaging studies are used to diagnose Boerhave syndrome?CT contrast esophagography, with gastrografin; pleural effusion studies, exudative, low pH, increased amylase
What would CXR demonstrate in Boerhave's?One sided pleural effusion, subcutaneous emphysema, widened mediastinum,
What are the sx of diffuse esophageal spasm?Spontaneous pain, odynophagia with hot/cold foods, better with nitrates and Ca channel blockers, regurgitation,
How do you confirm diagnosis of DES and other Esophageal motilitiy disoders?Esophageal mannometry
What are the opthalmoscope findings in diabetic retinopathy?hard exudates, microaneurysms, retinal edema, hemorrhages, cotton wool spots(pre-proliferative), and new vessels(proliferative)
How do you treat diabetic retinopahty/Argon last photocoagulation
What are the signs and sx of open angle glaucoma?Gradual loss of peripheral vision with tunneling of vision; on exam, cupping of the optic disc
What is the treatment of Giardiasis?Metronidazole