UWorld 2

poxidicu's version from 2016-04-27 19:05


Question Answer
Like IgG antibodies to facilitate phagocytosisC3b(Opsonins & Phagocytosis)
Repaglinide, Nateglinide(Meglinitides)Membrane Ion channels -> Inhibit atp dependent K channel -> Increase Insulin release. Sx -> Weight Gain *Note - work the same way as sulfonylureas
B-HCG levelsSerum 1 week, Urine 2 weeks
Conjunctivitis, Sore throat, Camps/Daycare, crackles in the lungs(pneumonia), pharyngitis, self-limited Adenovirus
Alcoholic pt presents to the ER. Ethanol effects on the TCA cycleInhibit a-ketoglutarate -> Succinyl-Coa(Thiamine Dependent)
Gene exchange that occurs through the crossing over 2 double stranded DNARecombination
Mixing of genome segments in segmented viruses that infect the same host cellReassortment
Maltese crossBebesios(Ixodes Tick-Lyme disease(Target rash))
MalariaAnopheles mosquito
Chikungunya, Zika,DengueAedes mosquito
Restrictive Lung diseaseIncreased Lung elastic recoil -> Widening due to increased outwardpulling(Radial traction) by the fibrotic tissue -> Increased Expiratory flow. Decreased Lung Compliance.
Pinprick in the perianal area & contraction of anal sphinctorS4 (Cauda Equina syndrome - Low back pain with change in pain with positional change)
Ankle JerkS1&S2
Knee JerkL2&L4
Dizziness SxCalcium blocker and Betablocker
HPVNormal -> CIN Low grade -> CIN High grade -> Malignant Carcinoma
CIN Low gradeBasal Layer
CIN High gradeBasal & Epithelium Layer
Cervical CarcinomaBasement membrane
Watershed areas of stomachSplenic flexure & Rectosigmoid Junction.
Desmopressin(ADH)Decreases urea clearance by activating V2 receptors at the medullary collecting duct
Severe coughing, followed by emesis, Inspiratory whoop, adult due to decresased childhood vaccinationGram - Coccobacillus B.Petrusis
Immunocompromised Lung transplant increase risk forCMV


Question Answer
Increased B-hcg, SOB, Hemptoysis, lung nodules, vaginal bleeding, uterus enlarged with recent normal pregnancyGestational Choricarcinoma(Proliferation of cytotrophoblasts & syncytiotrophoblasts)
Rh incompatibilityErythrocyte opsonization by maternal antibodies (Mother attacks the baby)
Gastric Bypass surgery high incidence forSmall Intestinal bacterial overgrowth -> Leading to a deficiency of B,A,D,E,Iron -> Overproduction of Folic acid and vitamin k
Gllucagon give to a pt that took insulin but skipped meal ended up unconsuoisnessGlucagon increases serum glucose by Liver Glycogenolysis
GobletcellsLung mucus
Club cells/Clara cellsProtein against inflammation
Elastase made byAlveolar macrophages
Complication of MI 4-5 daysLeft ventricle rupture and the cause of death is Hypotension
Unfractioned Heparin stored in mast cell granulesUsed to prevent and breakdown clots in hip surgery pts by binding to antithrombin III
Pregnant women toxoplasmosis gondiiCat feces and undercooked meat
Immuno-compromised toxoplasmosis gondiiOral thrush, Lymphadenopathy, No history of cat pet
AchondroplasiaAD, risk of child to be short 50% (Normal one and affected other)
Male case, Normal testosterone. External sexual organs not developed properly UNTIL PUBERTY(hypospadias, small phallus), undescended testes, 5a-reductase deficiency
Zidovudane MOALacks 3"-OH group making 3"-5" phosphodiester bond formation inhibiton
septic shock,hyperemia, infract of internal organs, pupuric cutaneous lesion, hemorrhage of adrenalsWaterhouse Fiderichsen(Due to N.Meningitidis)
DiverticulaPt 60+ yrs old presents with diverticula(mucosa&submucosa,serosa) in the sigmoid colon, constipation, bright red blood from rectum is due to pulsion
True(traction) VS False(pulsion) diverticulum4layers VS 3 layers
Prostate treatment pt presents with gyncomastia shoudve been treated withTamoxifen(estrogen receptor modulator)
Self resolving Jaundice, Normal unconjugated bilirubin, Increased direct and total bilirubin, abundant pigment inclusions composed of polymer of epinephrine metabolitesDubin Johnson syndrome(Defective excretion)
young pt with Diplopia acute, blurry vision, history of same episode a few months ago that resolved, right optic disk atrophy, lateral gaze messedup on one eye(intranuclear opthalmoplegia)Axonal degeneration(Multiple Sclerosis - Reduced saltatroy conduction
Nephrotic Kidney SyndromeIncreased Liver lipoprotein synthesis(Hyperlipidemia & Lipiduria), hypoalbuminuria(Decreased Hydrostatic pressure and oncotic pressure)
Pt sneeze and leads to urinating on herselfLevator Ani muscle weakness(Kegel exercises)/ Uretheral sphinctor dysfunction


Question Answer
Urge IncontinenceDetrussor overactivity
Overflow incontinence(Diabetic Neuropathic)Detrussor Contraction impaired
Internal Urethral SphinctorInvoluntary muscle to pee(Sympatetic)
External Urethral sphinctorVoluntary muscle to pee(Pudenal nerve)
HCG very similar to what hormoneTSH(Testicular tumor with Hypyrthyroid effect)
Flexible joints & skin, Bleeding in joints, circus worker, easily bruised and scarringEhler Dhanos Syndrome(Collagen defective)
Calcium sensing receptorsTransmembrane G-protein coupled receptors
Influenza pts can progress to complications of having bacterial pneumoniaS.Pneumonia, S.Aureus, H.Influenza
C.BoutlinismDefective RELEASE of AcH
Primary amenorrhea, Fully developed secondary sexual characteristics, Shortened vaginal canal(upper vagina) with rudimentary uterusMullerian aplasia
Adrenal Hyperlasia with hypertension17 or 11 hydroxylase deficiency
Mutated Ras protein(GTP activated permanently) leads toCancer
Acute Rejection(Mononuclear lymphocytic Infiltrate)Host T-cell sensitization against graft MHC antigens (Mononuclear Lymphocytic infiltrate)
Acute Rejection(Neutrophilic Infiltrate)Host B-cell sensitization against graft MHC antigens
Graft vs Host Disease(Bonemarrow transplant)Graft T-cell sensitization against host MHC antigens
Hyperacute RejectionPreformed antibodies against graft MHC antigens
Cooper excretionSecreted into bile and excreted in stool
Internal HemorrhoidsDo not Hurt, Superior rectal vein-> Inferior Mesentric veins & Internal Iliac
External HemorrhoidsHurt, Inferior rectal vein-> Internal pudendal nerve -> Internal Iliac veins
Impetigo(pustular skin lesion,thick scabs)S.Aureus, S.Pyogenes(Facial-Na retention, Hematuria-nephritis)
BortezomibProteasome inhibitors(Cell apoptosis) Tx Multiple Myeloma
Diffuse atrophy of the cortexAddison Disease
Hyperplasia of the GloMerular Layer of the cortexConns Syndrome
Hyperplasia of the fasciculate layer of the cortexCushing syndrome
Hyperplasia of the adrenal medullaPheochromocytoma
Projection defenseKid thinks parents are mad at him hence why divorcing but instead the kid is mad at the parents
African kid, severe, swelling of hands and feet(dactylitis)Low serum haptoglobin(Cleans up sickle cell hemoglobin)
ChlorathalidoneThiazide diuritic(hyperGLUC- Glycemia, Lipidemia, Uricemia, Calcemia), Hyponatremia, Hypkalemia
Post partum hemorrhage, prior c section, invading musclaris layerPlacenta accreta
Hirschsprung diseaseFailure to pass meconium due to incomplete migration of neural crest cells leading to lack of RECTUM
Alcoholic pt, Yellow sputum(yellow sulfur granules), enlarged Submandibular lymphnodes(oral/facial abscesses that drain through sinus tracts in skin), poor dentitionActinomycosis Israelii
Prostate cancer, elderly, smoking -> Virchow triadSaddle embolism(DVT due to hypercoaguability)
Metformin SXLactic acidosis worse in -> Hepatic or renal insufficiency(serum creatinine)
Norepinephrine to epinephrinePNMT(Phenylethanolamine-N-Methyltransferase
MIDecreases cardiac output due to damage to myocardium hence cant contract. Venous return is the same
Thickened bronchial walls, neutrophilic infiltrates, mucus gland enlargement, patchy squamous metaplasia of bronchial mucosaChronic Bronchitis
Polyarteritis Nodosa(Segmental transmural necrotizing inflammation of small to medium arteries) EXCEPTPulmonary arteries
MenopauseFSH increased confirms
Celecoxib(Anti-Inflammatory)Does not impair platelet aggregation
Lisinopril SXHYPERkalemia, Increased Creatinine, Cough
Poor alveolar perfusionCO2 not entering alveolar from artery & O2 from alveolar does not enter artery
Ileohypogastric nerveL1, suprapubic and gluteal region appendectomy can damage leading to decreased sensation
Cushing TriadLow bp, hr, breathing
Uncal Herniation(Transtentorial)Suppressing Cranial Nerve 3 -> Ocular nerve deficits(Fixed Pupilary dilation) / Down & Out gaze
HydrocephalusUpward gaze/3rd ventricle enlarged
Female, Chrons Disease, Gall stonesBile sent from liver to intestine with cholestrol -> Cholestrol normal only excreted but since ileum inflamed -> bile is not reabsorbed and excreted with cholesterol through feces -> Increased Bile acid wasting
Fever, Sore throat,History of Hyperthyroidism(Graves)Thonamide-induced agranulocytosis(Methimazole & PTU)
Methimazole VS PTUTeratogenic/ Non-Hepatotoxic VS Non-Teratogenic/Heptatoxic
Aspirin & Ibuprofen not used inHyperthyroidism pts


Question Answer
frothy, foamy urine(proteinuria), hx of URI, edemaNephrotic Syndrome(Hypoalbuminemia) -> Lowers the plasma oncotic pressure
Golden crusted lesion, peprioral, blistering eruption complication followingImpetigo(S.Aureus) -> PSGN(Facial puffiness, dark urine,hypertension)
Microcytic anemia(Low MCV), Constipation, mental status changes(Lack of concentration), construction worker, shortness of breath last few weeksLead poisoning(Basophilic stippling)
Isonaizd resistanceMutation causes resistance becauses KatG(BACTERIAL Catalase peroxidase) needed to activate isoniazid
Multi-factorial Inheritance(genetic & environment)Spinabifida, cleft palate, coronary artery disease, diabetes
Protein kinesinSecretory vesicles in nerve tubules (Anterograde)
Proto-oncogene(ISIS)On causes cancer/ activating mutation (KRAS, ABL, BRAF, HER1&2,n-MYC,l-MYC, SIS,TGF-a)
Tumor suppresor(POLICE)OFF cauces cancer/ Inactivated in neoplastic cells (APC, BRAC1,RB,P53, WT-1, DCC, NF-1,VHL)
CNX(Vagus)Sensation to posterior auditory canal(Fainting, Light headache)
PeroxisomesOxidize very long chain fatty acids(Neurologic deficits, CNS myelination)
Orexin A & BHypocretin low in pts suffering from Narcolepsy
Osteoclast markerUrinary deoxypyridinoline, Tartate resistant phosphatase, urinary hydroxyproline
Osteoblast markerAlkaline phosphatase
Pthogenesis - Mucosal invasion is the mechanism of infection via M cells of peyers patchesShigella(Non-Lactose, Non-motile does not produce H2S, watery diarrhea first then bloody,decrease appeitite, abdominal cramp,+fecal occult test)
Shiga toxinHalt protein synthesis
Pancreactic DivisumFailure of ventral(main pancreatic duct) and dorsal(tail,body,superior aspect of head,accessory) to fuse
ParasitesAntibody dependent cytotoxicity IgE attract eosinophils
Type 1 hypersensitivityMediated by mast cells and basophills with IgE
NFKBPro inflammatory transcription factor -> Increase cytokine production
Primary active transport(Hydrolysis of ATP)Na/K(Digoxin), H/K(Proton Pump inhibitors), Ca Atpase
HomeoboxCodes for Transcription regulators
Painful, violaceous nodules seen on fingertips & toes, Infective endocarditisOslerNodes -> Immue complex mediated vascular lesions
Macular, erythematous,NON tender lesions of palms & soles, Infective endocarditisJaneway lesions -> Microemboli to skin lesions
BH4(Tetrahydrobiopetrin) deficiency leads toIncrease Phenylalanine(DiHydropteridine reductase deficiency) & Decreased Serotonin
Aspergillosis Fumigatus45degree V-shaped branching
Mucromycosis(Rhizopus)90degree, Diabetic Ketoacidosis, Immunodeficiency, Paranasal sinus(facil,periorbital pain)
Fistulas, and Gross Non Bloody diarrhea, transmural, young ptChrons Disease
Fistulas, low grade fever, left lower quandrant pain, diarrhea or constipation, older ptDiverticultis
MifepristoneProgesterone anatagonist (Necrosis of the uterine decidua)
MisoprostalProstaglandins (Cervical sofetening, uterine contractions)
Supraventricular tachycardias due to atrial fibrillationFlecanide, Propfenone -> ProLonged QRS Duration
Feelings of detachment from or being an outside observer of self(I am not myself) / Experiencing surroundings as unreal(Im in a fog or dreamDepersonalization/ Derealization disorder
Inability to recall important personal information after a stressfull or traumaDissociative amnesia
Marked discontinuity in identity and loss of personal agency associated with sever trauma or absueDissociative Identity disorder
Dermatomyositis(difficulty climbing stairs, skin rash, getting up from chair, 10lb weight loss)Risk factor for Ovarian adenocarcinoma.
Spontaneous Lobar Hemorrhage in 60+ yrs in Occiptal(Homonymous Hemianopsia) and parietal lobes(Contralateral Hemisensory loss)Cerebral amyloid angiopathy
Median nerveCourses between humeral and ulnar heads of the pronator teres muscle & then runs between flexor digitorum superficials and the flexor digitorum profundus muscles
Radial NerveCourses through the supinator muscle near the head of the radius


Question Answer
Ulnar NerveCourses through the olecranon & the medial epicondyle. Flexor carpi ulnaris & flexor digitorum
Prenatal delivery or rish should be givenBetamethasone or Dexamethasone for NRDS
Oral Polio(Live attenuated)Duodenal Luminal IgA
Severe chest pain that radiates to the back, BP readings different in both armsAortic Dissection - Intimal tearing
Metrondiazole use to treat GET GAP(Trichmonas vaginitis) SXDO not drink alcohol when taking this drug (Disulfram like effect)
Diabetic NeuropathyEndoneural arteriole hyalinization
Atherosclerosis involvementAbdominal artery, Coronary and Carotid
Exercise has similar systemic and pulmonary circulationBlood flow per minute
Wrist extension damageRadial nerve
Thumb adductionUlnar Nerve
Thumb abductionMedian Nerve
Left knee swollen, erythematous, warm and tender with restricted range of motion, NO history, MANAGEMENT?Synovial fluid analysis -> Crystal analysis, cell count, gram stain
Facial grimacing, lip smacking, twisting movements of her fingersTardive Dyskinesia
Venous Return & Cardiac output increasedChronic Atriovenous fistula
Venous Return decreased(Vasodilation), Normal Cardiac outputAnaphylaxis
Venous Return Normal, Cardiac output decreased(Infarction myocardial cells)MI
Venous Return decreased, Cardiac output decreased(High TPR)Epinephrine/Phenylephrine
Venous Return left ward shfit, Cardiac output decreased(Ulcers)GI Bleeding
A-fetoprotein & acetycholinestrase increased meansNTD (Failed fusion)
Migration abnormalityHirschsprung disease(Failure of neural cells to migrate into the intestinal wall)
Failed apoptosisDuodenal atresia(Palpable olive mass in the stomach)